Effect of Different Microwave Doses on Vicia faba Germination, Growth and Genetic makeup
Some areas are affected by high frequencies of microwaves; this affects plant growth, germination and genetic makeup, which leads to a loss in crop yield, including one of the major crops of high economic importance, the Vicia faba.
Plants and their stresses have been of very great importance lately. Since there are many kinds of stresses, we only studied one, but a very important one: microwaves and their effect on plants. Microwaves are going to be the focus of our study because of the drastic effects that they have, not only on humans and different mammals but on plants. In brief, we can say that microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wave length longer than those of terahertz (THz) frequencies, but relatively short for radio waves. There are lots of sites contaminated by microwave radiation from cellular radiation, power plants and high voltage towers, etc….. These affect the plants development, which drew our attention towards this project. Our hypothesis is that different doses of microwaves affect plant growth and development. To prove this hypothesis; we have to expose plants to different microwave doses, plant them in a green house under controlled conditions (soil, climate, humidity …) and observe them daily. Then we have to extract the DNA and RAPD of the DNA and determine the changes that occurred in their genes. Our conclusion from this study is that different microwave doses do affect plant germination.
Plants and environmental stresses have been of most importance as a field of study and research through out the ages. It was found that the different stresses that plants are exposed to are outgoing and reduce the crop yield. Of these stresses, temperature, drought, salinity and microwaves are of major importance.
Temperature, for example, is the principal factor determining vegetation zones. Global climate change caused by elevated greenhouse gasses was predicted to increase the proportion of hot, semi-arid land and the prevalence of high temperature and water stress. Oxidative stress from UV, photo-inhibition and pollutants such as troposphere ozone are associated problems. Drought is the main cause of low plant productivity and particularly of seasonally erratic productivity. Water is an increasingly continuous issue as there is not enough renewable fresh water at the right place and time to serve humans needs, regardless to say plants. Irrigation on demand and irrigation with poor quality water together lead to water logging and soil salinity so undermining the sustainability of the irrigated agriculture upon which food security depends. These reasons lead to research focusing on increasing knowledge of plant metabolic processes and their regulation. Developing novel protocols for the genetic manipulation of previously recalcitrant plant species is the most recent trend in research in regards to the solving of such problems.
Microwaves are going to be the focus of our study because of the drastic effects that they have not only on humans and different mammals but on plants. In brief we can say that microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wave length longer than those of terahertz (THz) frequencies, but relatively short for radio waves. Microwaves have wavelength approximately in the range of 30 cm (frequency=1GHz) to 1mm (300 GHz). The microwave range includes ultra-high frequency (UHF) (0.3-03GHz), super high frequency (SHF) (3-30 GHz) and extremely high frequency (EHF) (30-300GHz) signals. Above 300 GHz, the absorption of electromagnetic radiation by earth atmosphere is so great that it is effectively opaque, until the atmosphere becomes transparent again in the so-called infrared and optical window frequency ranges. Microwaves were found to affect plants and plant growth severally. Long exposure to microwaves affects the germination of seeds or plants....
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