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Effect of conflicts among teachers on their own performance in school education department

By Azmat-Ahmed Nov 06, 2014 3437 Words
Effect of conflicts among teachers on their own performance in school education department

Azmat Farooq Ahmed Khurram
M.Phil. Scholar
Supervised by: Dr. Saif Ullah
HOD, Department of Education
University of Gujrat, Pakistan.
Abstract
School is the area in which students not only study but learn the life skills to handle the needs of time and society, under the coaching and supervision of teachers. Sometimes, unluckily teachers involve in the conflicts. The purpose of this study was to find the existence of conflicts and causes behind these conflicts. The objective was to find the effect of existed conflicts on the performance of teachers in school education department. Researcher found major reasons behind these conflicts. For data collection, researcher used the questionnaire to know the existence and nature of conflicts among teachers, reasons behind these conflicts and the effects of conflicts on their own performance and a separate questionnaire for school managers to formulate strategies to handle and eradicate these conflicts, effectively. For statistical analysis of data, Microsoft Excel was used. Suggestions were made to help the school managers to improve situation of school by the strategies of equal work load and politeness etc.

Introduction
When people work in collaboration or in any organization, conflicts are inevitable because there are chances of personal liking and disliking. These conflicts may be positive or negative, productive or destructive. Chances of hates and adores can cause the conflicts. Often, conflicts happen because of political or religious biasness of the work force. There are many conflicts which, common in the school education department, now a day. The current situation of our schools is not acceptable and satisfactory. The existing situation has become very tensile. Teachers are seen involved in many conflicts in school education department. Teachers feel disgrace and hesitation to obey the headmaster; they do not willingly accept the guidelines and instructions. Teachers are not agreed to take additional labor. Headmasters also use an autocratic attitude and compel the teachers for a nonstop labor of the school events. So the conflict between teachers and the school headmaster arise

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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repeatedly at any time in the school. Conflict happens between teachers due to their religious matters, administrative issues and academic reasons with different classes like

anger,

disliking, grouping of like-minded teachers, division of workload, time table adjustment, wish to seek power, use of authority, religious beliefs , political attachments, poor communication, unjust behaviour of headmaster, , local and family disputes, favoritism, competition, financial benefits, teasing, criticism, caste system, back biting, discipline matters, proving oneself more scholar, fashion and professional jealousy, between the staff members. (Annexure 1)

In standard situation, teachers are the lifeblood and backbone of the school. Books and classrooms have no worth without the teachers. Teachers play a vital and inevitable role in the lives of students. They help to develop the mental, social and individual needs of their students. Teachers can help to promote joy of learning and the propagation of knowledge. The impact of teachers on the souls and lives of students is more than any other. But, sometimes teachers are seen involved in disputes with one another.

In Islam, teaching is

regarded as profession of our Holy Prophet Muhammad (SAW) (Hadith, Ibn Hanbal, III, 328; Ibn Majah, I, 17). (Annexure II)

It is clearly seen that, when teacher become involve in conflicts they not only lose the honor among students, other teachers but also lose the place and fame in society. If teachers are involved in conflicts then the whole atmosphere of school is badly affected. Not only the performance of teachers but the scores of students are also affected. Resources, working and health of teachers are affected. Teachers lose dedication for their schooling. Teachers show lack of interest in teaching activities, become mentally upset, personality converts unbalanced

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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and their syllabus is not completed in time. Teachers live in State of anger, feel fear of work, become disappointed and assume disgrace among students.

There is a big gap between existing and standard situations. Schools environment should be free of conflict. If the school environment is free of conflicts then working and performance of teachers nourishes. Learning atmosphere is necessary for the performance of both students and the teachers. Creativity and joy of work is created in schools. Students become attached to teachers.

During this study, following objectives were set out:


To search out the causes of conflicts among teachers at High Schools level.



To conclude the effects of conflict on the performance of teachers and the strategies to handle with these conflicts.

Conflicts among teachers need special attention for the moderation or refinement of the situation. There is an urgent need to redress these conflicts. Each conflict due to its different nature needs different method to handle it. School managers can improve the situation by their self-made and experience based strategies. Heads of schools can reduce these conflicts by their attitude, sincerity, care and wisdom. Forgiving, appreciation, collaboration, peacemaking and arguments etc. are different ways to control these conflicts. If teachers are assigned different types of tasks and assignments, then the possibility of conflicts creation can be reduced. They can play their vital role to enhance the performance of both teachers and students. Diplomacy, Conciliation, Counseling and guiding are the easy ways to overcome the chances of conflicts among teaching staff.

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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With the help of this study, researcher explained that why teachers at school involve in conflicts and pollute the smooth running of schools. Researcher also, explored the reasons behind the conflicts and the strategies to cope with these conflicts. This study helped the school managers to design and adopt strategies to avoid the conflicts and make the environment of school, a better learning place.

Current Situation of Schools

Standard Situation of Schools

Conflict among teachers

Collaboration among teachers

Existence of conflicts

Conflict free atmosphere

Effects

Effects

Gap between both situations
Need to eradicate conflicts
Effects

Recommendations
Eradicate conflicts
Effects

Review literature

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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Conflict means “competitive or opposite deed of incompatibles : opposed state or deed (as of different thoughts, benefits, or persons) or intellectual fight resultant of incompatible or contrasting desires, drives, demands, or exterior or interior demands or the disagreement of individuals of public”( Merriam Webster,2013) According to Oxforddictionaries.com, “A position of mind in which a somebody experiences a clash of contrasting approaches or desires or a serious mismatch between two or more ideas, values, or benefits.” However the Performance means that the achievement of a given responsibilities. Performance is supposed to be the fulfillment of a responsibility” According to Plunkett and Attner (1989), “the birthplaces of conflict comprise; common resources, variances in objectives, difference in views and ethics, differences in the role necessities, nature of labor doings, separate tactics and the step of managerial improvement”

Fisher (1997) notes, “…both individuals and groups have undeniable needs for identity, dignity, security, equity, participation in decisions that affect them. Frustration of these basic needs….becomes a source of social conflict”

Gray and Stark (1984) cite that “there are six sources of conflictions which are inadequate resources, Inter-reliant work actions, diversity of events, communication hitches, variances in observations and the atmosphere of the institute” Conflicts are the result of many diverse reasons like Particular differences, ambiguous power, and changes in approaches, obligation magnitudes and variation in views.

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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Ghaffar (2009) cite the quotation of author, Deutch (1983) who identified a list of sources of conflict which are, “control over resources, likings and troubles, ethics, beliefs, opinion and the nature of relationships between the parties”

Smith and Glenn, (1994) explain, “internal stages have an influence on teachers feelings of achievement and a number of external influences can either refer or defer a teacher’s achievement” There are several causes that influence teacher performance. Additional duties and burdens of time, low pay, and trouble making students have a foremost impact on teachers’ attitudes.

Nyamajiwa (2000:p4) quotes numerous causes of conflict like;” goal mismatch, absence of resources, performance hopes and administrative configurations. In schools, teachers may carry with them different time and objective orientations that may generate a state of high differentiation”

Nyamajiwa (2000, p4) cites that, “conflict within a school can be caused by bitterness for inadequate resources”. In many schools, the structure or role is a probable basis of conflict. There can be task conflict and division of labor conflict. In a school, this type of conflict can be seen in the relationship between the head of school (manager) and the teachers.

Teachers must not involve in the conflicts as it is directed in religion Islam. Islam is “submission to the will of God.” Islam means harmony and peace gained only through the obedience to the will of Allah. Islam is assembled on the preaching’s of our Holy Prophet who set many examples to avoid conflicts like (i) the pact of Medina (ii) the Agreement of

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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Hudaybiyya; and (iii) the several other negligible clashes, among habitants, that are declared in the hadith .

This is the extract of Surah Al-Anfal: 63 of Quran, in which it is evident “and linked their hearts. Had you given away all the riches of the earth you could not have joined their hearts, but it is Allah Who joined their hearts. Indeed He is All-Mighty. All-Wise”

Conflicts can cause severe complications among teaching staff and badly disturb the performance of teachers. With the descent of results of students, the confidence of the teacher also falls. Teacher loses heart and tries to avoid work with devotion. Hopefulness, faith in service, self-regulation, devotion, sovereignty and commitment among teachers becomes extinct. Professional approach of a teacher is the demonstration of his likes or dislikes emotional state, desires or presentation to teaching in the school. But when teachers involve in conflicts they waste most of their energies and forget the needs of students, environment of school and their own prestige vanish. They can be seen shouted at other staff members, by which they lose their honor and grace among others teachers as well as students. The moral

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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of both teachers and students destroys. When teachers indulge in the disputes and become habitual of conflicts, they overlook that the model teacher is that who is helpful, kind and passionate. Only those teachers perform well that have constructive, optimistic and productive approach.

It is the personal understanding of the researcher that expert and experienced attitude of teachers plays a vibrant role in modeling the conducts of teachers. But when they involve in conflicts they forgot professionalism and fall from the peak of honor. Teachers who keep direct connection with other teachers, students, parents, public and the society and try to avoid indulging in conflicts by which they remain at the peak of reputation and grace. They keep good relationship with colleagues. Teachers lose interest in teaching activities and become mentally upset. Most of the times, they keep living in the state of anger and become unable to complete their syllabus right in time. They lose their heart and become feared of work. Their personality becomes unbalanced and feels themselves disgraced among students and other teachers. Ultimately the quality of education is affected.

Research Methodology
Because the study was descriptive in nature so the separate questionnaires for students and teachers and for the heads of schools were designed. Gujranwala is an important division of the Central Punjab which has 6 districts, Gujrat, Gujranwala, M.B.Din, Hafizabad, Narowal and Sialkot. According to the database placed on Punjab Education Department, the total number

of

High

Schools

in

(http://schools.punjab.gov.pk, 2013)

Gujranwala

division

is

approximately

997.

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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All the high schools both for the boys and girls in Gujranwala division were selected for the population of this study. Due to the limited time and resources, the sample of the study comprised of 60 high schools both for boys and girls in all the districts of Gujranwala Division. These schools were randomly selected and one SST from each sampled school was selected for questionnaire.

The total number of High Schools in Gujranwala division is approximately 997 District

District

District

District

District

District

Total

Gujrat

Gujranwala

M.B.Din

Hafizabad

Sialkot

Narowal

Population

264

207

124

61

199

142

997

Sample

Sample

Sample

Sample

Sample

Sample

Total Sample

10

10

12

8

11

9

60

Keeping in sight the diverse factors and after reviewing literature separate questionnaires both for teachers and for heads of schools were designed for getting the data. Researcher used the questionnaire for teachers to know the existence and nature of conflicts among teachers, reasons behind these conflicts and the effects of conflicts on their own performance and a separate questionnaire for school managers to formulate strategies to handle and eradicate these conflicts, effectively. One SST teacher from each sampled school and one half of the sample for school manager (Headmaster or Headmistress) were given questionnaire. Almost all the questionnaire were collected back.

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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Table1: Existence of conflicts and the reasons behind these conflicts Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20

Conflict and nature
Conflicts existence
Sectarian believes.
Political attachment
Caste system.
Biasness of school managers
Grouping of like-minded
Financial benefits.
Professional jealousy
Back biting.
Wish to seek power.
Criticism.
Division of workload.
Time table adjustment.
Liking, disliking and anger.
Poor communication.
Use of authority.
Discipline matters.
Administrative issues.
Competition.
Fashion

%
%
SA
%A %U %D
SDA
40
57
0
3
0
7
43
7
17
27
37
23
3
30
7
40
30
17
3
10
50
47
3
0
0
33
33
23
7
3
30
23
20
20
7
60
37
3
0
0
40
47
13
0
0
23
33
17
23
3
20
60
17
3
0
37
37
13
7
7
40
33
0
20
7
13
37
20
13
17
7
27
37
23
7
50
33
10
7
0
43
40
7
10
0
20
63
13
3
0
63
13
3
10
10
7
27
33
13
20

In this table SA stands for strongly agreed, A for agreed, U for uncertain, D for disagreed and SD for strongly disagreed.
Analysis of table 1
Microsoft Excel was employed for the Statistical analysis of the data in this sheet. By this analysis it was found that conflicts exist in school Education Department in the form of Sectarian believes, Political attachment, Caste system, Biasness of school managers, Grouping of like-minded teachers, Financial benefits, Professional jealousy , Back biting, Wish to seek power,

Criticism, Division of workload, Time table adjustment, Use of

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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authority, Discipline matters, Administrative issues and Competition. But the Population of the study detected that competition, professional jealousy, biasness of school manager, criticism, and the use of authority as the major causes of conflicts among teachers. Similarly the female teachers detected that “Fashion” is also a cause of conflict in girl’s high schools. Table 2: Effect of conflicts on performance

Sr.
No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Conflict and nature
Conflicts existence
Sectarian believes.
Political attachment
Caste system.
Biasness of school managers
Grouping of like-minded
Financial benefits.
Professional jealousy
Back biting.
Wish to seek power.
Criticism.
Division of workload.
Time table adjustment.
Use of authority.
Discipline matters.
Administrative issues.
Competition.
Fashion

% MI % I
3
0
3
0
7
24
24
17
3
10
10
28
3
3
0
0
21
3

%U
0
28
0
0
10
10
10
14
14
34
10
7
28
17
31
7
62
28

%D
0
0
17
3
10
0
0
0
10
10
7
3
3
14
14
7
0
41

% SD
45
0
66
66
14
21
21
21
62
34
38
38
38
45
55
48
14
24

52
55
14
31
59
45
45
48
10
10
34
24
28
21
0
34
3
3

In this table MI stands for major increase, I for increase, U for uncertain, D for decrease and SD for strongly decrease in performance of school teachers of high schools in School Education Department

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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Analysis of sheet 2
By the analysis of the data of this table, it was clearly found that conflicts exist in almost every high school of Education Department with intense magnitudes. Sectarian believes, Political attachment, Caste system, Biasness of school managers, back biting, and Discipline matters badly affect the performance of teachers and, are responsible for the decrease in performance. But, researcher detected from this data, that competition among teacher has positive affect and plays vital role in the increase of their performance. Table 3: Strategies to eradicate/ handle with conflicts

Sr. No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Conflict and nature
Equal behaviour among teachers
Appreciation
incentives
Sincerity with colleagues
Devotion
Sacrifice
Proper training
Team Work
Proper allotment of labour
Democratic administration
Zero tolerance for disputes
Politeness

Frequency
%age
Mode
81
85
78
89
89
81
89
89
96
78
63
96

96

96

Analysis of sheet 3
Statistical analysis of the data helped the researcher to know the opinion of school managers about the strategies to handle with conflicts to eradicate them. Almost all the school managers presented their own strategies of handling with conflicts, which were most common among teachers. School managers use Equal behaviour among teachers,

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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Appreciation, incentives, Sincerity with colleagues, Devotion, Sacrifice, Proper training, Team Work, Proper allotment of labour and time table, Democratic administration, Zero tolerance for disputes and Politeness

as the main tools to eradicate the conflicts among

teachers. According to the analysis of data of table 3, researcher concluded that school managers were using two key tools to eradicate the conflicts, which were Proper allotment of labour and the politeness.

Findings
The researcher from different Statistics of the study, draw the following findings that learning can be increased through teamwork. Working with others increases the degree of involvement in education. This validates dynamic education and amplifies the performance and result of teachers. It is the ultimate goal of education and development. It is responsibility of school mangers to use tactics to improve situation of school by the strategies of equal behaviour among teachers, appreciation, incentives, sincerity with colleagues, devotion and sacrifice etc. Researcher found out that, if the school managers don’t play their role for the betterment of this situation then not only the results of schools but the performance of individual teachers also show decline. School managers must give special attention towards Proper allotment of labour and the politeness, which are the best ways to handle with these conflicts.

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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References
o Fisher, R.J. Interactive conflict resolution. Syracuse University Press :Syracuse, New York, (1997)
o Ghaffar A. Conflict in Schools: It’s Causes & Management Strategies, Journal of Managerial Sciences, Volume III, Number 1I,(2009)
o Gray, J.L and Strake, F.A. (1984) Organizational Behavior-Concepts and Applications (3rd ed.) Columbus Bell and Howell Company, pp.483-386
o Greenhalgh, L. (1986). SIVIR forum: Managing conflict. Sloan Management Review, 27, 45-51.
o http://schools.punjab.gov.pk/
o http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/conflict
o http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/performance.html#ixzz2Yr3iQBVg o http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/conflict
o Khurram,2013. Exploration of conflicts among teaching staff: Causes and remedies, UOG Gujrat

EFFECT OF CONFLICTIONS AMONG TEACHERS ON THEIR OWN PERFORMANCE IN SCHOOL EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

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o Makaye J, 2012. Conflict Resolution between Heads and Teachers: The Case of 4 Schools in Masvingo Zimbabwe. Greener Journal of Educational Research o Nyamajiwa, B.M. (2000). Communication in Negotiation. Harare: University of .Zimbabwe Centre for Distance Education

o Plunkett, W.R.and Raymond, F. Attner. Introduction to Management, Boston: PWsKent Publishing, (1989). o Smith.J.K, and Smith.L.G. (1994) Education today the foundations of a profession. St.Martin’s press, Inc.

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