Samuel and Bryant ‘Conservation’ Study
1. This study was performed in order to challenge the findings that were made by Jean Piaget relating to cognitive development in children. Samuel and Bryant believed that if a child was asked a question again after already giving an answer then they would be more susceptible to being influenced into giving a different answer even though the child may have already given the correct answer. Samuel and Bryant saw this as a weakness in Piagets claims about cognitive development in children so challenged Piagets theories by conducting his own experiment.
2. The aim of Samuel and Bryant’s study was to challenge Piaget's findings by altering the method used by Piaget. Furthermore the extraneous reason hypothesis was the pre-transformation question is unwittingly forcing the child to give the wrong answer by asking the same question twice.
3. The study by Samuel and Bryant is a lab experiment, because the researchers set different sorts of taks for the children and introduced them in different ways. It is also a quasi experiment because they compared the results of children from different ages. It is also a snapshot study
4. Two disadvantages for this study include; poor ecological validity as the study was conducted as a lab experiment and secondly the fact that all of the children were selected from one area as this will be unrepresentative on the general population. However and advantage of the Samuel and Bryant study being a lab experiment are that it means there will be a high level of control. Another strength of the study is that the independent groups design means that the order in which the experiment is done will not have an effect upon the results
5. The design for this study is a quasi design simply because the children are already devised into different categories depending on their age. Overall there were 252 children participating in the study, they were all between the ages of 5 and 8.5.