Ee1003 Final Report

Topics: Phase-locked loop, Logic gate, Flip-flop Pages: 24 (7052 words) Published: October 16, 2012
| A laser communication system for voice transmission|
| |
4/18/2011| EE1003 report Semester 2, 2010/2011|

HAR KAH HAUR A0072293EDANIEL TAN HOONG XIANG A0074608B| HENG JEYEE A0074494WCHENG SHAU CHUAN A0074530M DINH QUOC CUONG A0074480ECHOU YANG A0072474A| A laser communication system for voice transmission

EE1003 report for group 5
1. Scope
1.1 Background
Information flow has become increasingly rapid with the advent of telecommunication network and the internet. Information need not be passed down through physical means like mail or newspapers. It can be done through SMS (short messaging service), a phone call or even an email. Underlying such great inventions is the use of electronic devices to transmit and receive signals. Due to the demand for faster and larger data flow, complex systems such as Code-Division Multiple Access (CDMA) have been developed. This project is confined to the fundamental concepts used in digital communication. These key concepts include sampling, quantization and frame synchronization. The circuit designed is meant for one-way dataflow. It supports transmission by one user from any analog input. Hence, it is not necessary to select between multiple analog inputs using the frequency-division multiplexing technique. In transmitting wirelessly, a laser and photodiode are used instead of antennas. This choice is made because it is complex to build a Frequency Shift Keying (FSK) circuit. Without FSK, an antenna would need to be 75km long in order to transmit a wave of 4 kHz. 1.2 Problem Identification

In this project, a laser pointer is used to transmit analog signal wirelessly. In order to realize digital transmission, the analog signal must be converted into digital form using a Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) encoder. Before the signal can be decoded at the receiver end, frame synchronization must be achieved. Hence, a training sequence must be sent to synchronize the receiver and transmitter. Next, a Digital Phase Locked Loop (DPLL) is needed to lock on to the transmitted signal and generate clocks at the receiver end. In the final stage, the digital signal is converted back to an analog signal. This signal is then played through a speaker.

1.3 Constraints
Availability of Manpower
Our main constraint lies in the shortage of manpower. Due to the complexity of the DPLL Circuit and Training Sequence Identification Circuit, more members should be allocated to these two subgroups. However, this is not possible as our group consists of only eight members. This constraint will be addressed in the implementation section of this report. Components

The design of any combinational logic circuit is confined to the availability of chips (gates). In this project, we are not provided with AND and NOR gates. Hence, knowledge of Boolean algebra will aid us in realizing any logic with the universal NAND gate. In addition, the design of logic circuits also depends on the space of breadboard. Hence, minimizing the number of chips used takes higher precedence over the simplicity of design. This is to achieve compactness on the breadboard. Time

A short time frame of seven weeks is given to build a laser communication system. Apart from building the prototype, our group must submit design and final reports for grading. Hence, it is critical that all group members adhere to the schedule. Further, since there are no extra lab sessions provided for testing and debugging, subgroups must build the circuits before going for the lab session. 2. System Design

2.1 Project Requirements
1. 2.048 MHz Master Clock, 64 KHz Bit Clock and 8 KHz Frame Synchronization: with rising edges aligned. 2. Clock signals into PCM encoder, training sequence generator and multiplexer. 3. Coder and decoder chips are needed for analog to digital conversion and digital to analog conversion respectively. 4. Model the photodiode as a...

References: Brown, S., & Vranesic, Z. (2009). Fundamentals of digital logic with VHDL design (3rd ed.). McGraw Hill Education.
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering - National University of Singapore. (2011a). D1 Introduction [PDF Document]. Retrieved from IVLE’s EE2020 workbin
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering - National University of Singapore
Harold, P.E.S., & Samy, A.M. (2003).Communication systems: analysis and design (International ed.). Pearson Prentice Hall.
Kuphaldt, T.R. (2009). Chapter 8: Operational amplifiers. In Lessons in electric circuits (Vol. III: Semiconductors). Retrieved from
Soundproofing 101 Team (n.d.)
Zhang, J. (2011a). PCM codec [PDF Document]. Retrieved from IVLE’s EE1003 workbin.
Zhang, J. (2011b). Digital Phase Lock Loop (DPLL) [PDF Document]. Retrieved from IVLE’s EE1003 workbin
Ziemer, R.E., & Tranter, W.H
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