Education in the Philippines
Education in the Philippines is based on the education system of the United States, with some variations. Generally, compulsory elementary education runs for 6 years, while secondary education takes 4 years. After high school there are vocational courses or colleges which offer courses for a varying number of years depending on the course. University courses leading to a bachelor’s degree are usually 4 years long. The school year, which is at least 200 days or 40 weeks long, generally begins on the first Monday in June and ends by the last Friday of March, when the hot, dry season begins. School attendance takes place from Monday to Friday. History
Early Filipinos usually taught their children at home, focusing more on vocational skills than academics. There were also tribal tutors, but there was no structured educational system. Nevertheless, the Spaniards observed that there was an overwhelmingly high literacy rate, finding most of the natives were proficient in their indigenous system of writing. Spanish colonial era
With the coming of the Spaniards, missionary teachers replaced the tribal tutors. The focus of education during the Spanish Colonization of the Philippines was mainly religious education. The Catholic doctrine schools that were set up initially became parochial schools which taught reading and writing along with catechism. In 1863, an educational decree mandated the establishment of free primary schools in each town, one for boys and one for girls, with the precise number of schools depending on the size of the population. There were 3 grades: entrada, acenso, and termino. The curriculum required the study of Christian doctrine, values and history as well as reading and writing in Spanish, mathematics, agriculture, etiquette, singing, world geography, and Spanish history. Girls were also taught sewing. The decree also provided for a normal school run by the Jesuits to educate male teachers in Manila. Normal schools for women teachers were not established until 1875, in Nueva Caceres. Despite the Decree of 1863, basic education in the Philippines remained inadequate for the rest of the Spanish period. Often, there were not enough schools built. Teachers tended to use corporal punishment. The friars exercised control over the schools and their teachers and obstructed attempts to properly educate the masses, as they considered widespread secular education to be a threat to their hold over the population. The schools were often poorly equipped, lacking the desks, chairs, and writing materials that they were required to have under the decree. Though classes were supposed to be held from 7-10 am and 2:30-5 pm throughout the year, schools were often empty. Children skipped school to help with planting and harvesting or even because their clothes were ragged. For higher education, there were a few reputable private institutions such as the University of Sto. Tomas, Colegio de San Juan de Letran, and Ateneo Municipal. Though initially an institute of higher education, UST was required by an 1865 decree to open public secondary schools. Malolos Republic
After the Spanish colonial government was overthrown, the schools established during the Spanish era were closed down for a time by Emilio Aguinaldo’s government. They were eventually reopened by the Secretary of Interior on 29 August 1898. The Malolos Constitution made elementary education compulsory and provided for free schooling. The Universidad Literaria de Filipinas, which provided courses in law, medicine, surgery, pharmacy, and notarianship, was established by Aguinaldo on 19 October 1898. He also set up the Military Academy of Malolos and decreed that all diplomas awarded by UST after 1898 be considered null and void. During this period, other secular institutions which emphasized local geography and history were also established, such as the Burgos Institute in Malolos. Except for the emphasis on...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document