Topics: Education, Higher education, Educational psychology Pages: 19 (5339 words) Published: April 20, 2014
Education in its general sense is a form of learning in which the knowledge, skills, and habits of a group of people are transferred from one generation to the next through teaching, training, or research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of others, but may also be autodidactic.[1] Any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. Education is commonly divided into stages such as preschool, primary school, secondary school and then college, university or apprenticeship.

A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education.[2] Although education is compulsory in most places up to a certain age, attendance at school often isn't, and a minority of parents choose home-schooling, e-learning or similar for their children.

Contents [hide]
1 Etymology
2 History
3 Formal education
3.1 Preschool
3.2 Primary
3.3 Secondary
3.4 Tertiary (higher)
3.5 Vocational
3.6 Special
4 Other educational forms
4.1 Alternative
4.2 Indigenous
4.3 Informal learning
4.4 Self-directed learning
4.5 Open education and e-learning
5 Development goals
5.1 Internationalization
5.2 Education and technology in developing countries
5.3 Private v public funding in developing countries
6 Educational theory
6.1 Purpose of schools
6.2 Educational psychology
6.3 Learning modalities
6.4 Philosophy
6.5 Curriculum
6.6 Instruction
7 Economics
8 See also
9 References
10 External links
Etymologically, the word "education" is derived from the Latin ēducātiō ("A breeding, a bringing up, a rearing") from ēdūcō ("I educate, I train") which is related to the homonym ēdūcō ("I lead forth, I take out; I raise up, I erect") from ē- ("from, out of") and dūcō ("I lead, I conduct").[3]

Education can take place in formal or informal educational settings.

Main article: History of education

Nalanda, ancient center for higher learning

Plato's academy, mosaic from Pompeii
Education began in the earliest prehistory, as adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. As cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond skills that could be readily learned through imitation, formal education developed. Schools existed in Egypt at the time of the Middle Kingdom.[4]

A depiction of the University of Bologna, Italy, founded in 1088

Matteo Ricci (left) and Xu Guangqi (right) in the Chinese edition of Euclid's Elements published in 1607 Plato founded the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in Europe.[5] The city of Alexandria in Egypt, founded in 330 BCE, became the successor to Athens as the intellectual cradle of Ancient Greece. There mathematician Euclid and anatomist Herophilus; constructed the great Library of Alexandria and translated the Hebrew Bible into Greek. European civilizations suffered a collapse of literacy and organization following the fall of Rome in AD 476.[6]

In China, Confucius (551-479 BCE), of the State of Lu, was China's most influential ancient philosopher, whose educational outlook continues to influence the societies of China and neighbours like Korea, Japan and Vietnam. He gathered disciples and searched in vain for a ruler who would adopt his ideals for good governance, but his Analects were written down by followers and have continued to influence education in East Asia into the modern era.[citation needed]

After the Fall of Rome, the Catholic Church became the sole preserver of literate scholarship in Western Europe. The church established cathedral schools in the Early Middle Ages as...
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