theme: Discussion of aim of education is a function of the philosophy of education or 'educational theory'. The aim of education - in the fullest and deepest sense of the word - is in keeping with the nature of the human personality or 'human nature'. Human nature is defined in terms of the cultivation and development of perceptive intelligence based on experience i.e. 'creative intelligence'. Creative intelligence or 'intuition' combines reason of understanding with wisdom of compassion... depends on human 'awakening' or 'enlightenment'.... aim of education is to cultivate creative intelligence required for adaptation to changes in the social environment i.e. 'adaptability'.
Life is very complex and complicated. But an aim in life can make the complex life simple and purposeful. Aims give us direction to work and without aim, destination, or objective life becomes incomplete and haphazard.
Individual has different interests, attitudes and needs. Every individual wants to achieve certain goals in life. But a clear-cut aim makes the road of life easy. Educational aims are varied. They have their different role in different fields. Some specific aims are listed below:
(i) Knowledge Aim:
The aim of education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills and attitudes. It helps to adjust properly in one’s own environment. Knowledge helps the man to overcome the nature and satisfy human wants. It links the teacher and taught with social situation. It helps with certain skills to live in a society as human being and civilized one. Philosophers and educationists of the world believe in knowledge. It is the valuable asset of life, which helps the individual to overcome misery and problems of life.
(ii) Vocational Aim:
Knowledge aim of education is narrow by nature. The theoretical knowledge will never meet our basic needs of life. We need bread and butter to fill up our belly. We can get it if education is vocationalised. Gandhiji realized it in 1937 when he introduced Basic Education. Vocational aim develops the social efficiency of the individual. It reduces mental tension after completion of education. Those who are lower, intelligence in vocational education or training are a blessing for them. Realizing this aspect. Indian Education Commission (1964-66) introduces work-experience in the curriculum.
(iii) Character Building Aim:
The Indian concept of education believes in self-realization. Self-realization is possible through moral education. So the individual should cultivate moral virtues or values which constitute character. Swami Vivekananda said, “We want that education by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect is expanded and by which one can stand on one’s own feet.”
(iv) Complete-Living Aim:
The individual has various aspects to be developed. Every aspect of the personality is reflected in various activities to be performed. Education should help the individual to fulfill the various needs and necessities of life like self-preservation, fulfilling necessities of life, rearing and bearing of children, performing civic responsibilities and utilizing his leisure time properly.
Firstly, the individual must know the art of self-preservation. Secondly, education should enable to him to earn his living. Thirdly, he should know how to take care of his own children. Lastly, he must have the idea how to utilize the leisure hours properly in a profiting manner.
Development of the personality aim- Gandhiji said, “By education, I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit.” The meaning itself indicates to develop all-round aspects of individual-physical, intellectual, social and spiritual. All these aspects of the individual should be harmoniously developed. True education is development of 3H’s instead of 3R’s.
The development of Head, Heart and hand of an individual makes him happy.
(vi) Democratic Aim of Education:
One of the important aims and objective of education suggested by Secondary Education Commission (1952-54) is to develop the democratic citizenship. India is a democratic country. Even citizen must have to realize the duties and responsibilities carefully. So the aim of education is to train carefully the future citizens. Training should be provided to develop the following qualities of the individual.
(i) Capacity for clear thinking
(ii) Receptivity of new idea
(iii) Clarity in speech and writing
(iv) True patriotism
Further the democratic aim of education develop vocational efficiency, personality and leadership quality.
Indian Education Commission (1964-66) under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kothari suggested the following as the aims of education in a democratic set-up.
(i) Increasing productivity
(ii) Developing social and national integrity
(iii) Making education modernized and
(iv) Cultivating of social, moral and spiritual values.
Each individual teacher has an opinion about what the aim of education should be, not only in their own classroom but also in school in general. Many issues occur when differing opinions about the purpose of education collide. It is important to recognize that other people, including many of your coworkers, administrators, and your students' parents might have a different point of view concerning what education should be all about. Following is a list of different aims of education that individuals might espouse. 1. Knowledge to Get By
This old school belief holds that school is important in providing students with the knowledge they need to get by in their day-to-day lives. They need to know how to read, write, and do arithmetic. Even though these core topics form the foundation of a student's education, most educators today would probably not agree that this should be the extent of a student's school career.
2. Knowledge of Subject Matter Being Taught
The purpose of education to some teachers is to impart knowledge about the subject matter they are teaching without much thought to other classes. When taken to the extreme, these teachers focus on their own subject matter as being more important than what students are learning in other classes. For example, teachers who are unwilling to compromise their own subject matter for the good of the students can cause problems for the school at large. When the school I taught at tried to implement senior projects, we got push back from a couple of teachers who were not willing to change their lessons to include cross curricular activities. 3. Desire to Create Thoughtful Citizens
This might be considered another old school belief. However, this is held by many individuals, especially within the larger community. Students will some day be a part of a community and need the skills and mores to exist within that society as thoughtful citizens. For example, they will need to be able to vote in presidential elections. 4. To Gain Self Esteem and Confidence
While the self esteem movement often gets ridiculed, we do want our students to feel confident about their learning abilities. The problem comes in with inflated self esteem not based on reality. However, this is often cited as an aim of the educational system. 5. To Learn How to Learn
Learning how to learn is one of the key elements of education. Schools need to teach students how to find information they will need once they leave school. Therefore, the specific subject matter being taught is not as important for future personal success as is the ability for students to understand how to find answers for any questions and problems that might arise. 6. Lifelong Habits for Work
Many of the lessons that schools teach are necessary for success in their students' future lives. As adults, they will need to be able to get to work on time, dress and behave appropriately, and get their work done in a timely manner. These lessons are reinforced on a daily basis in schools around the nation. Some individuals see this as one of the main reasons for sending students to school. 7. To Teach Students How to Live
Finally, some individuals look at school in a more holistic manner. They see it as the means towards right living for the rest of their lives. Not only do students learn information in their individual subjects, but they also learn life lessons in and out of class. As previously explained, proper work etiquette is reinforced in the classroom. Further, students have to learn how to deal with others in a cooperative manner. Finally, they learn about how to learn information they might need in the future. In fact, one of the things that many business leaders cite as being necessary for future workers is the ability to work as part of a team and problem solve.