Ecosystem

Topics: Crustacean, Ecosystem, Invasive species Pages: 6 (1661 words) Published: April 20, 2015

Introduction
Ecosystem is similar to a community. It consists of species, living organisms and the abiotic factors, their habitat. Living organisms includes animals, plants, insects, micro-organisms. For their habitat, they are the non-living nature which are soil, sunlight, water, precipitation. There are two types of ecosystem. Terrestrial ecosystem which is on the land and aquatic ecosystem which is under the water.

Over-breeding is the increase of offspring of a species to a excessive number. In dictionary definition, it means “to breed to excess especially without regard to the quality of the breeding stock”.

There are various reasons of over-breed. The first one would be global effect, it is one of the main concern for the problem of over-breeding. Global warming changes the climate. Those are tolerant enough to survive can survive and increase the population; those who are not will decrease in number. This leads to the extinction of species. The lower trophic level will increase in population size. secondly, untreated pollution such as sewage and industrial discharge are toxic materials. When they leak to the environment, it will cause the same result as the global warming. Thirdly, Species are imported to a new place where they do not have predator and can adapted to the environment will have increase in the number of population. Fourthly, human abandon animals without concern would leads to the problem of over-breeding.

Over-breeding will interfere the ecosystem. For the environment, the over-breed species might damage the plants, destroy the shelter and breakdown food chain. In the living organisms, species in the same ecosystem might change their usual prey, decrease the initial resources, aboriginal living organisms might disappear and be edged out from the original habitat. Finally, biodiversity will be lost. The variability among living organisms from all sources including terrestrial, marine, other aquatic ecosystems, and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystem. Species are hardly to recover after disturbances such as bush fires or volcanic eruption.

Example

Chinese mitten crab
Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis/大閘蟹) is Medium-sized burrowing crab which is native to the coastal estuaries of eastern Asia. In 1900s, the crab seeds from Shanghai Wusong were carried by European merchant ships, entered the sump with water. When merchant ships arrived Rhine and Thames in Germany, crab seeds and water were pulled out of the ship. Then the mitten crab adjusted Europe rivers swiftly. The rivers provided a good living environment for the Chinese mitten crabs. The warm water contained lots of nutrition which could speed up crabs breeding. Because of Chinese mitten crabs were from China, there’s no local predictor can harm crabs, which also cause the over-breeding of Chinese mitten crab. There are 3 main consequences to the ecosystem after the crab numbers increase. The crabs would undermine dams.

Chinese mitten crabs over Germany
There are lots of consequences which are unavoidable when the number of Chinese mitten crabs increased. The crabs will undermine the nearby dams. As the dams are harmed, flooding will be caused, the whole area will be covered by water. Then the trees are drowned by water, because plants can not live without the air. A broken dam may also damage the sewage facilities, break down the tools. The polluted water will mix with the flash water, which will cause the water pollution. Besides, the crab is able the excavate holes on river bank to build crab shelter. As the holes become more and larger, it will accel the subsidence. In the other way, crabs will become new consumer in the river. Crabs usually eat fish and prawn as food. It will cause the monopoly of small size fish and prawn because of the growing number of the crabs. Crabs will pie the original food chain and then upset the...
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