Economic History of New Brunswick
New Brunswick (French: Nouveau-Brunswick) is named after the British royal family of Brunswick-Lüneburg (the house of Hannover). It forms part of the three Maritime provinces in Canada. It is the only bilingual province (French and English) in the country. It is included as one of the four Atlantic provinces, of Canada. North of New Brunswick are the Province Quebec and Chaleur Bay, on the east by the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and Northumberland Strait, on the south east by Nova Scotia, on the south by the Bay of Fundy, and on the west by the state of Maine. The Isthmus of Chignecto links the province to Nova Scotia.
New Brunswick became part of the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, being one of the four original provinces. The province’s economy is based primarily on the utilization of its natural resources. Currently, forestry and mineral industries are still important revenue-earners for the province but services and manufacturing sectors are gaining dominance. The Province of New-Brunswick was formerly part of Nova-Scotia, which was the first European settlement on the Continent of North America. The first grant of land was given by King JAMES the FIRST to Sir WILLIAM ALEXANDER, in 1621. The first settlers arrived in 1604 were emigrants from France with DE MONT, a French adventurer. It was named Acadia.
The colonists changed from French to the English then French again, till it was finally ceded to the British at the peace of Utrecht in 1713. In 1760, some people from the County of Essex, in Massachusetts, obtained a grant of a Township of about twelve miles square, on the River Saint John, from the British Government. These people surveyed and explored the place then established settlement in Maugerville.
In April, 1783, around three thousand persons, men, women, and children, sailed from New-York for the River Saint John. Many of them were passengers, but most were people who had joined the British army, and were now sent to this Country to be disbanded and settled. In October, around twelve hundred more arrived from the same place.
In 1785, the present limits of New-Brunswick were separated from Nova-Scotia, and a separate Charter of a Constitution was created to the Province, under Governor CARLETON. Starting this period the Province slowly grew in Agriculture, Ship Building, and the exportation of Masts, Spars, &c. to Great-Britain, and Fish, Staves, Shingles, Hoop Poles, and sawed Lumber to the West-Indies. The received in exchange for their produce and products, materials such as coarse Woollens and other articles from England; and Rum, Sugar, Molasses, and other produce from the West-Indies.
The climate at that period in New Brunswick was far more severe than at present. The settlers frequently had to experiment with crops that would produce crops even in the harshest temperatures. They also had to look for clothing under harsh conditions.
Since the earliest settlements, New Brunswick’s economy has been closely tied and reliant to its natural resources. Forestry products (including manufactured items) have been New Brunswick's economic chief support throughout its history. Fishing and agriculture are no longer important economic activities as compared to in the past. A large deposit of base metal ore were discovered in the 1950's. This has caused the mineral production activities to surge in the area. Along with these developments, service industries and specialized manufacturing also gained prominence. This has helped the province provide more jobs to its constituents.
In the early 19th century, around 1816 - the principal grains, roots, and grasses cultivated in the Province include wheat, oats, corn, peas, beans and others.
Wheat is sown from five pecks to two bushels per acre. The yields were around twelve to twenty-four bushels per acre. The land could sometimes produce more, when the soil is very...
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