American InterContinental University
Unit 2 Individual Project
In the textbook, there are two circular flow diagrams. One represents the flows in the macro-economy as a closed system and the other represents the flows as an open system. The circular flow diagrams show how money travels through the economic systems including businesses, households, foreign agents and governments (Editorial Board, 2013). Within the closed and open systems there are two consumers. The first consumers are households that buy goods and services and the second consumers are those businesses that purchase factors to produce. Households enter the goods market while the businesses enter factor markets.
The first type of circular flow is that of the closed macro-economy system. This is the circular flow of money. A closed system is an economic model that counts only domestic exchanges but not the foreign agents. This therefore means that without foreign agents, the government or the economy is free of leakages. This system is basically shut off from surrounding environments and is self-contained. An example of a closed system would be the Earth system as a whole. Although energy passes across the Earth’s system boundary, no mass is exchanged throughout the Earth’s system and the rest of the universe (Ritter, M., 2011).
The second type of circular flow in the macro-economy is considered the open system. The open system is the opposite of the closed system. It is an economic model that counts goods and services exchanged domestically and between nations (Editorial Board, 2013). In the diagram in the textbook, it indicates the circular flow of money in an open economy system. Open systems allow energy and mass to pass through and across the system boundary. An example of an open system would be the ocean. The ocean is considered an open system because it allows energy and mass to pass through. Energy which is solar radiation, latent heat and mass including water...
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