Topics: Ecology, Ecosystem, Biology Pages: 8 (2483 words) Published: May 15, 2013
Assignment of Botany:

Topic: Introduction, Aims and Applications of Ecology

Submitted To:Mam Musarat Nazeer
Submitted By:Nimrah Kalsoom
Roll number:33
Department:BS (Botany)
Topic: Introduction, Aims and Applications of Ecology
Introduction of Ecology:-
Ecology is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms and their interactions with the environments. These interactions are studied with a view to discovering the principles which govern them. What is meant by ecology?

The word ecology comes from the Greek word “oikos” meaning the “family household” and “logos” meaning “to study”. This term was formed by the German zoologist Erust Haeckel in 1866. He called it oecology.

It is important for humanity to understand its environment because we have the ability to modify the environment through the use of technology, and through overexploitation of natural resources as a result of greed or sheer pressure of numbers. Therefore, ecology is more than just the understanding of the interrelationships between organisms and their environment; it also has social, political, economic and technological dimensions. Ecology is also the branch of biology that draws all of the other components together. It demands a synthesis of physiology, anatomy, morphology, genetics and other aspects of biology that have been studied in detail as separate entities throughout your first year course. Although ecology retains an analytical approach of its own, it also brings the pieces of the biological puzzle together in a synthesis. Just as biology is assembled from various parts, so can ecology be studied at different levels, from organism to biome to biosphere. Most ecologists, however, work from the level of population through biome.

Ecology has increasingly moved towards the realization that organism’s traits and activities are vital for understanding community dynamics and ecosystem processes, particularly in response to the rapid global changes occurring in earth’s environment, and Functional Ecology aims to publish such integrative papers.

Types of ecology:-
There are two types of ecology:
1. Autecology:-
The study of relationship of a single population to its environment is called autecology. For example, one person is studying the effect of water population on 50 to 100 plants of soybean on their growth and their yield. As he is studying the single or one population of soybean plants, so that is autecology. 2. Synecology:-

The study of relationship of different communities or group of population to their environment is called sunecology or community ecology. Following factors are studied in synecology:
1. The various aspects of community like the origin, structure and composition of the community are studied is synecology. 2. The history of community. 3. The dynamics of community because community is not a fixed entity. But different changes occur at different time. 4. Three levels of integration are studied in the community. These are individual, population and community. ECOLOGICAL ORGANIZATION

Ecology is studies at several levels. In the first level of this hierarchy, life happens. Life goes from atoms, molecules, and cells to the biosphere; which is the sum of living things on Earth and the areas they inhabit. Ecology studies the organisms, population, community, and ecosystem. At the level of organisms, ecology studies organisms and their relationship with the environment surrounding them. Population ecology examines the changes in population, the factors that drive these changes; why some individuals leave a population, and why some populations increase when some other decline. Community ecology on the other hand investigates the relationships among species, from one-to-one interactions to more complex relationships involving entire communities.

The scope and development of...

References: -
1. Botany Book of Professor Iftikhar Ahmad & Professor Riaz-ul-Haq Ramey.
2. David K. Skelly, L. Kealoha Freidenburg.
From websites:
3. www.journal Author
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