Eco-degradation AND PHYTODIVERSITY OF PULICAT LAGOON, EASTCOAST OF SOUTHREN INDIA
S.K.M.BHASHA, M. JOHNPAUL,P.SIVA KUMAR REDDY NBKR Medicinal Plants Research Institute, SPSP Nellore (DT), Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore. email@example.com
Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after Chilika Lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity than fresh or sea water. Hence it has wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora. The World Wide Fund for Nature declared it as a protected area. Present study aims to explore the flora of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods. Key words: Phytodiversity – Pulicat Lake – Threats – Conservation
Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lagoon after chilika lake of Orissa along the east coast of India. The area on the TN side is 153.67 Sq.km. It extends over 600 Sq. Kms in Andhra Pradesh covering the 5Mandals of Tada. Sullurpet, Doravari satram, Chittamuru and Vakadu of Nellore District. Estuaries and lagoons have brackish water which shows high biological productivity then fresh or sea water. Hence it has wide range of aquatic, terrestrial flora. The world wide fund for nature declared it as a protected area. Present study aims to explore the flora and fauna of the lagoon along with the various threats for its eco-degradation which helps to plan necessary conservation methods. The Pulicat area has some very significant patches of remnants of southern tropical dry ever green forest interspersed with mangrove forest, littoral vegetation and cane brake on Sriharikata Island which is of considerable Botanical interest. The sanctuary area has some very significant patches of remnants of Southern tropical Dry ever green forest interspersed with mangrove forests, littoral vegetation and cane brake on Srihari Kota Island which is of considerable Botanical interest. The pulicat has several islands which the larger islands are the srihari kota island venadu island irakkum island and pernadu island the islands are having very significant forest type called as southern tropical dry ever green forests. Venadu and irakkum islands and plants of great botanical intrest vegatation representing species are manilkara hexandra, strychnos nuxvomica,maba buxifolia in addition to these the lake has mangrove forests on the northern portion.mangrove vegetation consist of exococaria agallocha,avicenuia officinalis ,acanthus ilicifolius and aegeceros paniculatum. Sandy barrier islands of Irakkum ,venadu and pernadu islands and smaller islands in the north are aligned north south and divide the lagoon in to eastern and western sectors.the morphology of the lagoon categorized and four types with large areas under mud flats and sand flats tropical mansoon air temperature 15 c 45 c .geotectomically uplifted shallow water area of atakanitippa,venadu.are shallow water regimes. The shallow lake with 1-2 ft water extends from rayadoruvu to southern resimes namely venadu proximal to irakkum island. This desiccated tectonically uplifted shallow water in unique and in very riches planktons.
Pulicat Lake derived its name from a vernacular name ‘Palaverkadu’ means plants with many number of roots. Those plants are mangroves with aerial roots called Pneumatophores. The word mangrove is considered to be a combination of the Portuguese word “Mangue” and English Word “Grove”. These are salt tolerant plants and are rich in this area and might be the reason for that name. The lake harbours rich and valued floristic wealth because of its varied ecological habitat viz., salt marshes, canals, mangroves, islands, low lying areas...
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