Ebola Virus paper - Microbiology

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Topics: Immune system
Introduction

Ebola virus which causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever, was first recognized in 1976 in Zaire, now
Democratic Republic of Congo, and Sudan. It is named after the river Ebola in Zaire. The virus has five known subtypes named after the location where they were first identified and caused disease:
Ebola Sudan, Ebola-Bundibugyo, Ebola-Zaire, Ebola-Ivory Coast and Ebola-Reston. (CDC.gov)
Ebola-Reston is the newest subtype and was identified in research macaques imported from Philippines to Virginia in 2004 and later in Texas in 2006. It was discovered that the research animals in both cases were from the same site in the Philippines where guinea pigs were also found to have been infected with the same strain. (CDC.gov) While Ebola-Ivory Coast and Ebola-Reston do infect humans, symptoms as manifested by infection with other subtypes is not seen nor have any human deaths been reported. (Lee and Saphire, 2009) Ebola-Zaire and Ebola-Sudan are the most lethal with mortality rates upwards of 90% and 61% respectively. (CDC.gov)

Ebola virus is classified as a Class A bioterrorism agent and one that must be handled bio- safety level 4 labs. Research of Ebola virus requires trained professionals and facilities with rigorous levels of control to access. (CDC.gov) Like other viruses, the survival and spread of Ebola is dependent upon the host organism. At this time, the natural reservoir is not known which complicates containment and prevention of acquisition of Ebola. There are hypotheses that a non-primate is the host organism. Recent research points to fruit bats as the possible host carriers as the virus and viral antibodies are found in them though they do not exhibit any symptoms. Research continues in attempting to discover the natural reservoir so transmission prevention mechanisms may be implemented. The virus is not known to be native to continents other than Africa and Philippines in
Asia. (CDC.gov)



Bibliography: Cook JD, Lee JE The Secret Life of Viral Entry Glycoproteins: Moonlighting in Immune Evasion. PLoS Pathog May 2013 volume 9 issue 5 Hammer J The hunt for Ebola: in Uganda, a CDC team races to find the origins of a deadly virus. Smithsonian. November 2012 volume 43 issue 7: 24 Lee JE, Saphire EO Ebolavirus glycoprotein structure and mechanims of entry. Future Virol. 2009 volume 4 issue 6: 621-635 Sarwar UN, Sitar S, Ledgerwood JE Filovirus emergence and vaccine development: a perspective for health care practitioners in travel medicine. Travel Med Infect Dis. May 2011 volume 9 issue 3:126-34 http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/ebola-virus/DS00996 http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/Fact_Sheets/Ebola_Fact_Booklet.pdf http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/spb/mnpages/dispages/ebola/ebolatable.htm http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/216288-overview http://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/en/

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