Ebola Presentation by a student before

Topics: Ebola, Viral hemorrhagic fever, Reston ebolavirus Pages: 18 (1997 words) Published: December 4, 2014
Ebola in Sub-Sahara Africa

Source: http://24.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lxgsy8RUj31r98we1o1_500.jpg

History of Ebola


Ebola is a virus, also called Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever



Named after a river in the Democractic Republic of the Congo, formerly known as Zaire, in Africa, where it was first recognized in 1976.



It belongs to a family of RNA viruses called Filoviridae



Four identified subtypes in Africa: Zaire, Sudan, Ivory Coast and Bundibugyo, each named after the region in which they occurred

Budding from
host’s cells

Long, branched
filaments

Source: http://www.thelancetstudent.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/11/Figure-2-Model-of-Ebola-virus-pathogenesis.jpg

Pleomorphic Shape

Ebola Description


Causes severe, often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans with fatalities ranging from 50% to 90%



Death usually occurs from shock within 6-16 days from the time of onset.



Its extreme pathogenicity classifies it as a biosafety level 4 agent.



Abrupt flu-like symptoms: fever, headache, joint and muscle aches, sore throat, and weakness, diarrhea, vomiting, and stomach pain.



The virus quickly progresses to massive hemorrhaging of internal organs, along with bleeding into the GI tract, from the skin, and even from injection sites as the clotting ability of the blood is diminished.



It then produces lesions in the liver, kidney, and spleen with areas of necrosis on the organs and the lymph nodes.



Worldwide, there have been approximately 1,800 infections and 1,400 deaths since 1976 with nearly all of them occurring in Sub-Sahara Africa.

Virus Strains
All strains are similar in shape but have different gene sequences and different properties. They all produce hemorrhagic fever, ultimately resulting in death

Zaire

Native to Africa
Causes illness in humans and primates (monkeys)
Highest rate of outbreaks and therefore, highest fatality rate

Sudan

Native to Africa
Causes illness in humans and primates (monkeys)

Ivory Coast

Native to Africa
Causes illness in humans and primates (monkeys)

Bundibugyo Native to Africa
Causes illness in humans and primates (monkeys)
Reston

Not native to Africa
Does not cause illness in humans but does cause illness in monkeys Suspected to be airborne

Relation to Global Health


Even though Ebola is scarce in other parts of the world, it is endemic in Sub-Sahara Africa and a major global health concern



Ebola has a very high death rate and there is no effective vaccine. Equally noteworthy is evidence of its existence in swine populations in the Philippines.



It is possible the virus has been around before 1989, when it was first detected in monkeys. If the disease has the ability to mutate, it may surface in other animals.



The Journal of Infectious Diseases recorded that ~13% of wild-born chimpanzees had Ebola antibodies. Researchers concluded that Ebola must be in circulation in forests where no human cases have been reported.



Chimps can be in contact with Ebola and survive, suggesting multiple exposure. If Ebola exists in places where it has not been observed, it can cause human outbreaks in unexpected countries.



The potential exists for Ebola to exert a worldwide effect through imported infections and biological terrorism.



The emergence of Ebola Reston in pigs raises important concerns for public health, agriculture, and food safety.

Figure 2

Locations of Ebola virus
infections and
outbreaks in equatorial
Africa. Often outbreaks
occur in remote areas
where advanced
medical support
systems are scarce and
diagnostic services are
difficult to provide. As
of Nov. 2012, the
Ugandan Ministry of
Health reported 4 fatal
cases in the Luwero
Source: http://www.realscience.us/blog/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/EbolaAfricaMap.jpg

District of Central
Uganda.

Etiology/Natural Reservoirs









•...

References: democratic republic of congo, 2007. Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.), 9(6),
723; 723-728; 728.
National Academy of Sciences - PNAS, 94(26), 14764.
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