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Eating Fish Eyes

By HadeeWayayok1 May 05, 2013 2993 Words
ANALYSIS OF EATING FISH; FISH EYES

RESEARCH PROPOSAL BY:
Abdulhadee Wayayok
ID Number: 211110043

Research Methodology
Stamford International University
January 2013

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study is to examine that eating fish’s eyes can enhance your memory and thinking ability or it’s just only culture believing. Because of in some culture believe that eating fish eyes can help your thinking ability. So, this study wants to confirm of culture believing with scientific method. This study gathered data from primary data through personal interview with a nutritionist who had expert in food nutrition. The secondary data came from various sources such as textbooks, independent studies, and Internet web site which concerned about nutrition of fish. In addition, this study used sample sampling. Empirical results indicated that respondents viewed eating fish eyes can enhance the thinking ability and it is a factor to make children intelligence when they grow up. A limitation of this research is the non-random used. Findings of this study would benefit to nutritionist in whom they can provide this information to their patients, parents, children, and also this study would benefit to fish consumers. Keywords: Eating fish, Fish eyes, Culture believing

Paper type: Research paper

Table of contents
Page
Abstract……………………………………………………………………………………...2 Table of contents…………………………………………………………………………….3 List of figure and table………………………………………………………………………4 Introduction………………………………………………………………………………….5 Background………………………………………………………………………….6

Statement of the problem…………………………………………………………….6 Purpose of the Study…………………………………………………………………7 Research Question………………………………………………................................7 Hypothesis……………………………………………………………………………7 Usefulness of Study……………………………………………………………….....8 Theoretical Framework……………………………………………………………....9 Literature Review.............................................................................................................…...10 Methodology……………………...………………………………………………………….11 Research Design……………………………………………………………………...11 Sampling……………………………………………………………………………...11 Instrumentation……………………………………………………………………….12 Data collection………………………………………………………………………..12 Findings and Discussion……………………………………………………………...12 My personal work plan……………………………………………………………….14 Limitation…………………………………………………………………………………….14 References……………………………………………………………………………………15

List of figure and table
Page
Figure 1: Theoretical framework…..........................................................................................9 Table 1: Personal work plan………………………………………………………………….14

Introduction
Fish contains a complete protein, DHA, and PUFA. LC3PUFA are found mainly in seafood, with salmon, trout and herring being particularly rich sources, containing 0.8-1.8 g per 85 g portion (US Department of Agriculture, 2008). White fish in particular is very low in fat and calories and therefore useful if you are dieting.  White fish (e.g. cod, sole, haddock and halibut) and shellfish (e.g. prawns) are also sources of EPA and DHA, although at lower concentrations (0.1-0.4 g per 85 g portion; US Department of Agriculture, 2008) and include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are derived from the parent essential fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). The n-6 PUFA are another important family group which yields arachidonic acid (AA) from the parent essential fatty acid, linoleic acid (LA) (Gropper et al., 2009). Moreover, fish does not contain saturated fats, as all meat products and by-products such as butter, cheese and milk do. Although some fish are slightly more calorific and fatty than others, these fats are the healthier polyunsaturated fats, which include omega-3 essential fatty acids that benefit the body and prevent certain diseases rather than cause them. Two types of EFAs are omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Studies have found that omega-3 fatty acids, in particular, may benefit eye health. Fish oils such as cod or halibut liver oil are often taken in the form of capsules in order to keep joints healthy and supple. Fish is very easy to digest and therefore for people with digestive disorders or who are generally felling weak and under the weather, a light fish meal can be of use. As well as all of the obvious health benefits of consuming fish, buying fish is also easier on the purse and preparing and cooking it can actually save you time in the kitchen, freeing up your time for other activities. Another great advantage is that there are so many varieties of fish available plus many different ways of preparing and presenting it that you will never have to eat the same fish twice in one week or possibly even month. Fish can be boiled, grilled, steamed, baked, fried, deep-fried, smoked, pickled, soused, stewed or poached and can be served in a sandwich, pie, tartlet, salad, croquette, fish cake, whole, in breadcrumbs, battered, in a pasties or on toast. It can even be consumed for breakfast, lunch or dinner. Those are the nutrition in fish and the benefits of it, but in this study the researcher focus on fish eyes which contain a lot of fatty acid and DHA said by secretary of nutrition of Thailand association.

Background
According to an article of Bozi Zhang from Alibaba.com stated that ‘’fish eye, especially eye of tuna in tuna Division, contains a wealth of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and other unsaturated fatty acids. This natural substance can enhance memory and thinking ability of the brain, to prevent memory loss, increased cholesterol, hypertension and other diseases of great benefit. There are many children are wearing eye young age. Protect the eyes from small start, they often eat food good for the eyes, protect the eyes. So good food on the eye, what does? Such as lean meat, poultry meat, animal offal, fish, milk, eggs, beans, etc., which are rich in protein, and protein composition of cells is the main component, organizations need to constantly update the patch to add protein, foods containing vitamin A is also beneficial to the eyes. Lack of vitamin A, the eyes ability to adapt to the dark decline, severe disease when susceptible night. Vitamin A can also prevent and treat dry eye. When the long-term lack of vitamin A to eliminate eye fatigue, daily intake should be adequate Vitamin A. The best source of vitamin A variety of animal liver, cod liver oil, milk and eggs, plant food, such as carrots, amaranth, spinach, leeks, green peppers, red sweet potato, and orange fruits, apricots, persimmons, etc. . Foods containing vitamin C are also beneficial to the eyes. Vitamin C is composed of a component of the eye lens. If you are likely to suffer from lack of vitamin C cloudy cataract lens disease. Therefore, in the daily diet should pay attention to intake of vitamin C rich foods. For example, a variety of fresh vegetables and fruits, including especially green peppers, cucumbers, cauliflower, cabbage, fresh dates, pears, oranges and other content in the highest. Rich in calcium powder is also good for the eyes. Calcium has a role to eliminate eye strain. Such as beans, green leafy vegetables, dried small shrimps are rich in calcium. Spare ribs soup, loose fish, sweet and sour pork ribs cooking methods can increase the calcium content.’’(2011)

Statement of the Problem
There has a story about eating fish eyes that people in some culture believe that eating fish eyes can help the brain in thinking ability and memory. My parents and grandparents also said something like this, when we have meals together, they always said that let’s eat the fish eyes because it is good for your health and it can help your memory in which you will be easy to memorize. In this study, the researcher wants to know that eating fish eyes can help your memory or it is just culture believing.

Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this research are to examine that eating fish’s eyes can enhance your memory and thinking ability or it’s just only culture believing and to analyze the benefits of eating fishes, especially fish eyes.

Research Question
Main question:
* What is the fact about eating fish eyes?
Sub questions:
* What are the nutrition in fish and fish eyes?
* Does eating fish eyes can enhance in thinking ability and memory?

Hypothesis
The hypotheses of this research are as follows:
* There is a relationship between eating fish eyes and enhancement of thinking ability and memory. * There is no relationship between eating fish eyes and enhancement of thinking ability and memory.

Usefulness of Study
The usefulness of this study would be benefits to:
1. Nutritionist in which they can provide this information to their patients. 2. Parents in which they can use this information to take care of their children. 3. Children in which they can use this information to choose nutrition food to consume. 4. All of fish consumers in which they will be know that fish eyes have a benefit to their brain. 5. Improve public understanding on fish eyes.

Theoretical Framework
In this section is the framework to present the concept of this study that eating fish eyes has influence on enhancement of thinking ability and memory, yet there still have another factors to make people especially children have good in thinking and memory when they grow up such as education, taking care of parents, heredity, and another factors. Theoretical framework of this study shows as follows: Enhancement of thinking ability and memory

Eating fish eyes

Dependent Variable
Independent Variable

* Education
* Parents Teaching
* Heredity
* School
* Socialization process
* others

Moderator Variables

Figure 1: theoretical framework of this study

Literature Review
Good health is a state of people need, everyone need to be healthy. People should choose a healthy food because healthy eating can make healthy body.  The aim of eating healthily is to maintain physical health and prolong life through preventing the development of diseases which are caused by a dietary component or a combination of dietary components (Sarah et al., 1999). People should select good food to consume especially, in children that parents should provide healthy food and induce children towards healthy eating habits. Building on classic socialization theory, consumer socialization research places parents as the main agent in the primary socialization process, where they both explicitly and implicitly transmit consumer-related orientations to the child (John, 1999; Ward, 1974; Ekström, 2006). In the secondary socialization process, peers, school and media become more influential (Dotson and Hyatt, 2005; John, 1999;Moschis, 1985). Eating fish is better than other meat, compare in cost and nutrition. Owen Day and Bari Howell report that soya protein is recognized as one the best alternatives to fish meal, for reasons of availability, cost, and nutritional quality (1997). Especially, deep sea fish contain a lot of omega-3 and DHA as shown in a journal of Owen Day and Bari Howell report that marine fish have an essential dietary requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), particularly those of the n-3 series (EPA and DHA), which are vital in maintaining the integrity of biological membranes and to the normal development and functioning of the nervous system (1997). For fish eyes contain a lot of DHA. Fish eye, especially eye tuna tuna Division, contains a wealth of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and other unsaturated fatty acids (Bozi Z, 2011).

Methodology
The research methodology presents an overview of the method to use and the process for achieving the aims and objective for this study.

Research Design
This study is qualitative data because in this study the researcher used interviewing as a method to collect the data. In this study the researcher interviewed with a nutritionist. Moreover, the researcher used another sources such as internet and books as secondary data source. Because of using interview as a method, it made more comfortable to researcher in asking to make the respondent answered the point of view that related to the objectives of this study.

Sampling
In this research study the researcher used judgment sample to select the respondent. Judgment sample is a type of nonrandom sample, which is selected based on the opinion of an expert. Results obtained from a judgment sample are subject to some degree of bias, due to the frame and population not being identical. The frame is a list of all the units, items, people, etc. that define the population to be studied (Deming W. Edwards, 1990). According to Joan Joseph Castillo stated that Judgmental sampling design is usually used when a limited number of individuals possess the trait of interest. It is the only viable sampling technique in obtaining information from a very specific group of people. It is also possible to use judgmental sampling if the researcher knows a reliable professional or authority that he thinks is capable of assembling a representative sample (2009). In this study, the researcher selected a nutritionist as a sampling who is Assistant Professor Dr. Rewadee Jongsuwat. She also is a secretary-General of Nutrition Thailand Association.

Instrumentation
This study used qualitative research as a method in collecting data by using an interview as a study tool. In this study, an interview is used as research instrument to collect primary data from a nutritionist who is a secretary-General of Nutrition Thailand Association. The question is approximately 7 questions and using approximately 15 minutes in discussion, but the main questions are 3 questions as well as in the Research question. In the sub question of Research question which have 2 questions will answer the objectives of this study.

Data Collection
This study collected data from 2 sources: primary data and secondary data 1. Primary data was collected by using interview with a nutritionist. This method is also a judgment sampling. 2. Secondary data was gathered from researches, journals, articles, textbooks, and Internet Web site, which were related to eating fish and fish eyes.

Findings and Discussion
This study focused on the nutrition in fish eyes. The total number of respondent in this study is 1 respondent. With using judgment sample in selecting of respondent, the researcher selected on purpose with a Secretary-General of Nutrition Thailand Association as a respondent. In the interview, the researcher and the respondent used approximately 15 minutes in argument with 7 questions. The respondent said that the nutrition in fish eyes contains a lot of DHA and dish oil but it depends on the kind of fishes, especially, in the deep sea fish such as Tuna, Salmon, and Mackerel. Fatty acid makes the skin bright and radiant. As we can see in the pharmacy and beauty clinic that there have collagens as supplementary drug such as pure hydrolyzed fish collagen. Hydrolyzed Fish Collagen contains much larger amounts of the amino acids glycine and proline than many other proteins. These amino acids are necessary for promoting healthy tissue growth of hair, skin and nails. A recommended dose of 10 grams (2 tablespoons) a day in the diet is optimum (Leong K, 2009). In addition, supplementary drug is used for someone who dislike in eating fish. Supplements are often used as alternative sources of LC3PUFA for those who dislike fish, or who cannot meet requirements from food sources alone (Givens and Gibbs, 2008). Recent studies in Europe and Japan have indicated the benefit of consuming 10 grams of hydrolyzed collagen to improve skin hydration and reduce the number of micro and deep wrinkles compared to a placebo1. (Leong K, 2009). Furthermore, the respondent stated her point of view that eating fish eyes is a factor to enhance thinking ability and memory, especially in children growth. But, there still have another factor and the environment factor to make the children get intelligent when they grown up. To summarize in this section, fish eyes contain a lot of fish oil and DHA that is the nutrition to make the memory easy to remember and to help thinking ability. Eating fish and fish eyes can help children in growth progress. Also, eating fish eyes can help in good skin.

My Personal Work Plan
STEPS IN THE RESEARCH PLAN | DEADLINE FOR COMPLETION|
Create research idea| October, 2012|
getting permission from the teacher to the research idea| November, 2012| Review of literature| November, 2012|
Draft of literature review| November, 2012|
First of research presentation| December, 2012|
Data collection| December, 21012 – January, 2013|
Interview | January, 2013|
Analysis of data | January, 2013|
Final of research presentation | January, 2013|
Final writting of research paper| January, 2013|
Table 1: Personal work plan of this study

Limitation
A limitation of this study as presents as follows:
* This research is the non-random used.
* Sample size is only 1 respondent.

Reference
* US Department of Agriculture (2008), "US Department of Agriculture's National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference Release 15", available at: www.ars.usda.gov/main/site_main.htm?modecode=12354500 (accessed 8 February 2009). * Gropper, S.S., Smith, J.L., Groff, J.L. (2009), Advanced Nutrition & Human Metabolism, Wadsworth, Scarborough. * Deming, W. Edwards (1990). Sample Design in business research. John Wiley and Sons. p. 31. * Leong K., Can a Collagen Supplement Help Aging Skin? May 9, 2009  * Givens, D.I., Gibbs, R.A. (2008), "Current intakes of EPA and DHA in European populations and the potential of animal-derived foods to increase them", Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 67 pp.273-80. * Sarah Maddock, Sheena Leek, Gordon Foxall, (1999) "Healthy eating or chips with everything?", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 99 Iss: 6, pp.270 – 277 * John, D.R. (1999), "Consumer socialization of children: a retrospective look at twenty-five years of research", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 26 pp.183-213. * Ward, S. (1974), "Consumer socialization", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 1 pp.1-17 * Ekström, K.M. (2006), "Consumer socialization revisited", in Belk, R. (Eds),Research in Consumer Behavior, Emerald Group Publishing, Bingley, . * Dotson, M.J., Hyatt, E.M. (2005), "Major influence factors in children's consumer socialization", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 22 pp.35-42. * John, D.R. (1999), "Consumer socialization of children: a retrospective look at twenty-five years of research", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 26 pp.183-213. * Moschis, G.P. (1985), "The role of family communication in consumer socialization of children and adolescents", Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 11 pp.898-913. *  Owen Day, Bari Howell, (1997) "Nutritional demands of farmed marine fish", Nutrition & Food Science, Vol. 97 Iss: 5, pp.188 - 191 * Bozi zhang (2011). Retrieved January 5, 2013. From the World Wide Web: http://ask.alibaba.com/Q/804409827-What-are-the-benefits-of-eating-fish-eyes-do.html * Joan Joseph Castillo (2009). Retrieved January 7, 2013. From the

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