eating disorder (literature review)

Topics: Bulimia nervosa, Eating disorders, Anorexia nervosa Pages: 6 (1866 words) Published: September 3, 2014
Eating disorder is a disorder that is influenced by culture, mind and body shape. Female has a higher rate of suffering eating disorder than that of male. In the modern city, people promote the ‘perfect body shape’. This is accompanied with the impact with the psychological matters. Without the correct treatment of the disorder, a life-threatening situation to individual is resulted. For anorexia nervosa, the person eats nothing beyond minimal amount of food, so body weight drops sharply, while bulimia nervosa, out-of-control eating episodes, or binges, are followed by self-induced vomiting, excessive use of laxatives, or other attempts to purge of food. Many risk factors do not directly cause binge eating but they predispose the individual to these behaviors (Fairburn, 2002). These factors include social, biological and psychological factors. Sociocultural influences bring along disturbances of body image and eating. This pressures the idealization of thinness and disparagement of overweight. Social reinforcement and modeling promote attitudes and behavior (Fairburn, 2002). Social reinforcement means the process which people internalize attitudes and demonstrates behaviors approved by respected others. Modeling means the process in which individuals directly imitate behaviors they observe (Fairburn, 2002). Thus, body dissatisfaction is built up. The theories of sociocultural influence contain media, family and peer influences. From the mass media, the body dimensions of female models, actress and other female cultural icons become thinner. Only few overweight individuals can be the model in the media. This reinforces ‘thinness’ as a perfect model. While their body shape is a bit different from the female models, they perceived themselves as ‘fat’. For family influences, parents pressure their daughters to lose weight. They criticize them regarding weight, shape or appearance. More, the poorer the family relationship, the higher chance of suffering the eating disorder. For the peer influences, individuals will perceive pressure when their friends lose weigh. More, peers making joke of weight prospectively predicts the increases in body dissatisfaction and eating disturbance (Fairburn, 2002). In biological dimensions, individuals, who have the family history of suffering eating disorder, will have a higher chance to develop eating disorder. Also, the decrease of the release of neurotransmitters will also cause the eating disorder. For example, the release of serotonin directly controls the degree of appetite and weight. This affects the hypothalamus activity of food intake. In psychological dimensions, it focuses on stress, personality, self-esteem and emotion. Self-esteem means the cognitive evaluation of one’s competence. Weight and shape are identified with self-esteem in individual with eating disorders. The lower the self-esteem, the higher the chance developing eating disorder is(Treasure, 2003). Personality means a stable way wherein individuals believe, react to, and interact with their environment (Keel, 2005). Individuals who have eating disorder in personality will perceive a high level of perfectionism. Finally, individuals who suffer mood problem, like depression and anxiety etc, will have a higher chance to develop eating disorder. By cognitive-behavioral approach, in anorexia nervosa, people usually have high level of constraint, low level of positive emotionality, the tendency to enjoy and be actively occupied in work and social interaction, and high level of negative emotionality, the tendency to experience negative mood states (Keel. 2005). They have a high level of perfectionism. They will overly concern about their weight and shape. And thus, they are easily perceived as negative feeling. Generally, dieting is followed by weight loss at last. As a result, this may produce positive reinforcement, the pleasing consequence of behavior that increases the probability that behavior will happen, in the...
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