The Cultural Environment of Global Markets
Numerous sangs facing internationalization business and globalization, various problems appeared evidently to surface and it turn into main concern for international, multi-national, and global companies such as: ethical consumerism, control of money laundering, environment protection, racism and discrimination and so on (C.Warren , 2011). Green Marketing became one of the importantglobal issues. Organisations are focusing more on the protection of environment and people have to control industrial growth to maintain a healthy economy( … ).The consumer has increasingly noticed damages caused by the disastrous environmental pollution arisen from industrial manufacturing(Yu-Shan and Chang, 2012).Nowadays, consumers become more conscious and aware about the environment and the pollution issues. While the environmental problems continue to grow such as air and sea pollution due to irrational production, few academic researchers linked green issues into their literature (Michael, 1994). As a result of this, the emergence of numerousorganisations like Business Strategy and the Environment, and Greener Management International are specifically designed to spread research relating to ethical consumerism. The purpose of this paper is to review the article named: “Opportunities for Green Marketing: Young Consumers” written by Kaman Lee The paper contains of three parts. 1 , 2, 3.
Through this article the author tried to answer two main questions What are the main factors that affect green purchasing behaviours in adolescent consumer’s teenagers? What is the importance of these factors?
The methodology used in this article is total of 6010 high school student’saged between 13-18 years old, in 48 different schools participant in Hong Kong, selected by multi-stages random sampling. They were surveyed upon their green purchasing behaviours, environment attitude, environment concern, perceived seriousness of environment issues, perceived environment responsibility, perceived effectiveness of environmental behavioursand social influence concern for self-image in environment protection. The questionnaire took with students group-administered in one of their classes at about 15min to terminate. One important point the author tries to highlight is how to extend conception notion called ethical consumerism that refers to buyer behaviours and the problem appear from unethical and unjust global trades. Literature Summary
Author talk about the seven predictors of green purchasing behaviours, the key steps as follow: Social influence, environmental concern, concernfor self-image, perceived environmental responsibility, perceived effectiveness of environmental behaviours, environmental attitude and perceived seriousness of environmental problems. The model which included the predictive power of the collection of seven predictors was significant. The most important impact that author found is social influence due to the power of peers’ empress in the purchase decision for teenagers. The finding also emphasizes interpersonal communication, moreover the importance of buzz marketing in supporting individuals to recommended attend green products to their close friends in this categoryfor this an active element for affecting purchasing behaviours. Second predictor was for environmental concern,hence the importance for this element mention the degree of emotional embroilment in environmental problems. It shows the amount of impress echo towards environmental protection, on the other hand environmental attitude refers to individuals’ cognitive assessment of the environmental protection rate. In general, purchase behaviours for adolescent affected by emotional advertisement more than by logic assessment. Concern for self-image in environment protection was the third predictor for green product carefree amidst adolescent. Here, the author wants to say that period of adolescence pass through several stages, it describes the power of identity, it need for approval and acceptance, particular attention and ethical development. The reason to mention those stages is to emphasis that adolescent is an oscillatory period with symbolic function among the green product purchase. Sequentially perceived environment responsibility and perceived effectiveness environmental behaviours were the fourth and fifth predictor of green purchasing decision. These findings illustrate the amount of awareness among teenagers and the significance of purchase decision to buy green product or not. The least predictor was for perceived seriousness of environment problems. Advertisement that focuses on environmental issues from rational perspective will negatively influence the teenagers’ attention to purchase green products. Study explains for international green marketers and gives them steps to entergreen production. The study also gives advices about howto segment and divide marketplace. As it shows that there are differences between adults and adolescent within purchase decision. This kind of statistic helps to understand the market and focus todivide it into several categories,which target and advertisement they should sable. One more important thing the author uses is adolescence interestgreen product sustainability more and more. CRITICM
Kaman Lee an associate professor at Chinese University, has written extensively about important elements in affecting young consumer’ green purchasing behaviours in Hong Kong.For that shesampling total of 6010 high school aged between 13 to 18 years old, selected randomly and surveyed in several factors. At first sight, we can draw a lot ofderivation from this magnitude study. One worrying thing among the participant is that total of 4117 teenagers 68.5 per cent aged between 13 to 15 years old. The Trait and Social-Cognitive Perspective(….2008) psychoanalytic theorists have given us some compelling ideas about how individual differences in emotional responses experiences shape development and self-perceived competence
Bandura takes a social cognitive view of personality. He suggests that three components the external environment, individual behaviors, and cognitive factors, such as beliefs, expectancies, and personal dispositions are all influenced by each other and play reciprocal roles in determining personality. Trait theorists refers that the various dimensions of mood have evolved into five dimensions of personality (called Big Five) that are shown in Table 1
As it shows teenagers between thirteenth and fifteenth years old are easy affected by many external influences, therefore purchase decision is based on emotional response of others and so on. In addition author mentions that social influence was in the top factors effect on teenagers purchase decision. While there is enough information available to consumers as a result of green product advertisement and information explosion, teenagers may not buy environmental product because of rational reasons when real purchase making. As Lee argued that more serious the environmental problems the subject perceived, the less likely adolescent were to buy green products.Another major concern of the author that she depends on old studies goes back more than 25 years ago from issuing article, through this period many contingencies emerging to surface and might change people thinking way. In summary this article is extensive quantitative study in opportunities for green marketing purchase regarded to young consumer, this artic is comprehensive guide for environmental product marketers to exploit social influence in advertisement focusing on emotional appeal to attract adolescent into friendly environment product.
Article number 2
“Analysing the impact of green marketing strategies on consumer purchasing patterns in Mauritius” written by Juwaheer and pudaruth The author want to answer three basic questions as followed: Analyse the relationship between costumer environmental beliefs and their environmental behaviours in Mauritius. Examine the extent to which green packaging and branding can promote consumption of green product in Mauritius. Investigate whether green advertising can introduce a green pattern of consumption amongst consumers in Mauritius.