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Earth &Univeres & Solar System-2014

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Earth and universe

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

1

Earth
Earth , our home planet, is beautiful blue and white ball when seen from space.
Science is the study of the Earth and its neighbors in space.
It is an exciting science with many interesting and practical applications. Some Earth scientists use their knowledge of the Earth to locate and develop energy and mineral resources.

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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Others study the impact of human activity on Earth's environment and design methods to protect the planet.
Some use their knowledge about Earth processes such as volcanoes, earthquakes and hurricanes to plan communities that will not expose people to these dangerous events.

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

3

The universe is a huge wide-open space that holds everything from the smallest particle to the biggest galaxy. And it includs matter & energy. 1- Energy: such as movement, light, heat, radiation. 2- Material: is composed of billions of galaxies, stars in addition to the planets, moons, comets, meteorites, gases, dust, and nebulas.

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

4

Origin and creation of the universe
There are many theories that explain the origins of the universe, but the most famous of these theories is a theory of
“great explosion” or “great cloud”.
The theory of the great explosion explains for us the origin of the universe. It assumes that the universe (since 13 billion years ago) was a huge mass of gas in very high temperature, pressure and density. Huge explosion was happened for the gas mass due to its very fast spin around its axes, accordingly parts of the gas mass were separated and spread on the different dimensions in space. Over billions of years the fissile parts became cooled and later stars and planets were birthed.
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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

Material Compositions of the Universe

1- Galaxies: There are billions of Galaxies in the
Universe. Galaxies consist of large number of stars. Some of these Galaxies are very small with only a few million stars, while others are big and consist of 400 billion stars,

or even more.
Galaxies have different forms (spherical, semi-spherical, elliptical & semi-elliptical p, spiral, ....etc. and the most

famous is disc shape) and our Earth is located within the
Milky way galaxy.

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

2- Stars: star is a massive, luminous ball of plasma.

The nearest star to Earth is the Sun, which is the source of most of the energy on Earth.
Other stars are visible in the night sky, when they are not outshone by the Sun.

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

3- planet
A planet is a spherical ball of rock and/or gas that orbits a star.
The Earth is a planet. Our solar system has eight planets. These planets are, in order of increasing average distance from the
Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and
Neptune. The only object visited by humans other than the planet Earth is the Moon, which is not a planet. It is a satellite.

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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4- Asteroids: ‫لكويكبات‬
The International Astronomy Union has an official definition for a planet. It states, "A 'planet' is defined as a celestial body that (a) is in orbit around the Sun, (b) has sufficient mass for its selfgravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (c) has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit."

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

5- Comets: ‫المذنبات‬

composed of methane and ammonia
(gas) in solid state. Their shape is spindle with elongated limbs (tail).
They revolved in elliptical orbit, and if the comet approached to the sun its tail is lighting.

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

6- Meteorite: ‫نيزك‬
A meteorite is a natural object originating in outer space that survives an impact with the Earth's surface.
While in space it is called a meteoroid. When it enters the atmosphere, impact pressure causes the body to heat up and emit light, thus forming a fireball, also known as a meteor or shooting star.

7- Meteorites: ‫نيازك‬
Meteorites have traditionally Broad Been Divided Into three categories

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

Types of Rocks Meteorites
1- Lakendric meteorites
: )‫( النيازك الصخرية‬stony meteorites)
Are rocks, mainly composed of silicate Minerals.
2- stony-iron
‫النيازك الصخرية الحديدية‬ meteorites : consist of rocks rich in iron and nickel in addition to varying percentages of metals.

3- Iron meteorites: ‫التبازك الحديدية‬
Are largely composed of metallic iron-Nicke.

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

8- Milky Way galaxy :

‫مجرة الطريق اللبني‬ is of semi-circular (disc) shape, thin at the limbs and swollen In the middle. It composed of a group of stars and the sun represents a small part in this galaxy.

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Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

-9- Sun: one of the stars in the milky way galaxy, of medium size, and its surface

temperature is 5700 degree. It revolved around here self with speed 220 km /s, and complete one cycle around its

center in 200 million years. There are nine planets revolves around the sun
(Mercury, Venus, Earth , Mars, Jupiter,

Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto).
The sun is away 30000 light-years from the center of the Milky Way Galaxy

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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It is our Sun and everything that travels around it. Our solar system is elliptical in shape. That means it is shaped like an egg.
The Sun is in the center of the solar system. Our solar system is always in motion.

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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What dos our solar system consists?
Our solar system consists of the sun, eight planets, moons, many dwarf planets , an asteroid belt, comets, meteors, and others. The sun is in the center of our solar system ; the planets, their moons, a belt of asteroids, comets, and other rocks and gas orbit the sun .

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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Nebula

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

A nebula is a cloud of gas and dust in outer space. These clouds are often very large, spanning across many light years.

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The Planets There are eight planets that orbit the sun:
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune.
And also another large body is Pluto, now classified as a dwarf planet or plutoid.

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

18

The inner planets
• (those planets that orbit close to the sun)
• Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars.
• All four planets are very different from each other, but also have their similarities.

They are relatively small, composed mostly of rock, and have few or no moons.
Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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*

the Outer Planets

(those planets that orbit far from the sun)

*Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (a dwarf planet).
* Pluto, a dwarf planet which crosses the orbit of Neptune and was also once classed as an Outer Planet.

*They are mostly huge, mostly gaseous, and have many moons again, but Pluto, is a dwarf planet, which is small, rocky, and has four moons.

*all four have rings spinning around them, with Saturn having the most famous rings.
Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072465700/student_view0/chapter7

http://nineplanets.org/ http://space.about.com/od/glossaries/g/planet.htm http://www.iau.org/public_press/news/release/iau0603/questions_answers/ http://wps.prenhall.com/esm_mcknight_physgeo_8/22/5642/1444537.cw/index.html http://www.qldscienceteachers.com/junior-science/astronomy/quizzes/universe

http://www.qldscienceteachers.com/junior-science/astronomy/quizzes/solar-system

Dr.Latifa AL-Naimi

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