Earth science

Topics: Atmosphere, Ozone, Oxygen Pages: 137 (18115 words) Published: October 6, 2014


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Page i

NASA/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers



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Page ii

The Air Around You
This satellite image shows
Hurricane Bonnie, which
struck North Carolina in 1998.
The storm was nearly 400 miles
wide, with the highest recorded
wind gust at 104 mph. Overall
damages were estimated in the
$1.0 billion dollar range, and
three deaths were attributed to
the Category 3 storm.

Copyright © 2005 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without prior written permission of the publisher.

The National Geographic features were designed and developed by the National Geographic Society’s Education Division. Copyright © National Geographic Society.The name “National Geographic Society” and the Yellow Border Rectangle are trademarks of the Society, and their use, without prior written permission, is strictly prohibited.

The “Science and Society” and the “Science and History” features that appear in this book were designed and developed by TIME School Publishing, a division of TIME Magazine.TIME and the red border are trademarks of Time Inc. All rights reserved.

Send all inquiries to:
8787 Orion Place
Columbus, OH 43240-4027
ISBN: 0-07-861758-8
Printed in the United States of America.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 027/043 09 08 07 06 05 04

NASA/Science Photo Library/Photo Researchers



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Page iii

Susan Leach Snyder
Education Division
Washington, D.C.

Dinah Zike

Earth Science Teacher, Consultant
Jones Middle School
Upper Arlington, OH

Educational Consultant
Dinah-Might Activities, Inc.
San Antonio, TX

Series Consultants



William C. Keel, PhD

Carol A. Senf, PhD

Nerma Coats Henderson

Department of Physics and
University of Alabama
Tuscaloosa, AL

School of Literature,
Communication, and Culture
Georgia Institute of Technology
Atlanta, GA

Pickerington Lakeview Jr. High
Pickerington, OH



Teri Willard, EdD

Aileen Duc, PhD

Mathematics Curriculum Writer
Belgrade, MT

Science 8 Teacher
Hendrick Middle School, Plano ISD
Plano, TX

Mary Helen Mariscal-Cholka
William D. Slider Middle School
El Paso, TX

Science Kit and Boreal
Tonawanda, NY

Series Reviewers
Lois Burdette

Nerma Coats Henderson

Sharon Mitchell

Green Bank Elementary-Middle
Green Bank, WV

Pickerington Lakeview Jr. High
Pickerington, OH

William D. Slider Middle School
El Paso, TX

Marcia Chackan

Michael Mansour

Pine Crest School
Boca Raton, FL

Board Member
National Middle Level Science
Teacher’s Association
John Page Middle School
Madison Heights, MI

Pioneer Jr-Sr. High School
Royal Center, IN

Annette D’Urso Garcia
Kearney Middle School
Commerce City, CO

Mark Sailer

Kate Ziegler
Durant Road Middle School
Raleigh, NC





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Page iv

Why do I need
my science book?
Have you ever been in class and
not understood all of what was
presented? Or, you understood
everything in class, but at home,
got stuck on how to answer a
question? Maybe you just
wondered when you were ever
going to use this stuff?
These next few pages
are designed to help you
understand everything your
science book can be used
for . . . besides a paperweight!

Before You Read

Chapter Opener Science is occurring all around you,
and the opening photo of each chapter will preview the
science you will be learning about. The Chapter
Preview will give you an idea of what you will be
learning about, and you can try the Launch Lab to
help get your brain headed in...
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