the planet on which we live
land as opposed to the sea, the air, etc.
the material in which plants grow
the inhabitants of this planet, especially the human inhabitants: The planet on which we live; the world: “the diversity of life on earth”. The earth is the third planet from the sun in the solar system, orbiting between Venus and Mars at an average distance of 90 million miles (149.6 million km) from the sun, and has one natural satellite, the moon. It has an equatorial diameter of 7,654 miles (12,756 km), an average density 5.5 times that of water, and is believed to have formed about 4,600 million years ago. The earth, which is three-quarters covered by oceans and has a dense atmosphere of nitrogen and oxygen, is the only planet known to support life SCIENCE
a branch of knowledge or study dealing with a body of facts or truthssystematically arranged and showing the operation of general laws: The mathematical sciences.
Systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation. Any of the branches of natural or physical science.
Systematized knowledge in general.
Knowledge, as of facts or principles; knowledge gained by systematicstudy. A particular branch of knowledge.
Skill, especially reflecting a precise application of facts or principles; proficiency. Any of various sciences, as geography, geology, or meteorology, thatdeal with the earth, its composition, or any of its changing aspects. The branch of science dealing with the physical constitution of the earth and its atmosphere. Any of several essentially geologic sciences that are concerned with the origin, structure, and physical phenomena of the earth.
Earth Science is made of many branches of knowledge of all aspects of the Earth system. The main branches are geology, meteorology, climatology, oceanography and environmental science. Astronomy uses principles understood from earth to learn about the solar system, galaxy and universe.
Overview of Earth Science
Only recently have humans begun to understand the complexity of our planet Earth. We have only known for a few hundred years that Earth is just a tiny part of an enormous galaxy, which in turn is a tiny part of an even greater universe. Earth Science deals with any and all aspects of the Earth: its lands, interior, atmosphere, and oceans. In all its wonder, Earth scientists seek to understand the beautiful sphere on which we live, shown in the Figure.
Earth is a very large, complex system or set of systems, so most Earth scientists specialize in studying one aspect of the planet. Since all of the branches of Earth science are connected, these researchers work together to answer complicated questions. The major branches of Earth science are described below.
BRANCHES OF EARTH SCIENCE
Geology is the study of the Earth’s solid material and structures and the processes that create them. Some ideas geologists might consider include how rocks and landforms are created or the composition of rocks, minerals or various landforms. Geologists consider how natural processes create and destroy materials on Earth, and how humans can use Earth materials as resources, among other topics. Geology has many branches, only a few of which are described in the images below (Figure here).
(a)Mineralogists study the composition and structure of minerals and may look for valuable minerals; (b) Planetary geologists study the geology of other planets. Lunar geologists study the Moon; (c) Seismologists study earthquakes and the geologic processes that create them. They monitor earthquakes worldwide to protect people and property; (d) Scientists interested in fossils are paleontologists. Oceanography
Oceanography is the study of everything in the ocean environment, which covers about 70% of the Earth’s surface (Figure below). Recent technology has allowed people and probes to...
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