# E102

Topics: Acceleration, Velocity, Kinematics Pages: 24 (3301 words) Published: February 3, 2015
﻿ANALYSIS
There are lots of topics to be discussed in Physics. There are always new discoveries all the time. The world, and everything in it, moves. Even seemingly stationary things, such as a roadway, move with Earth’s rotation, Earth’s orbit around the Sun, the Sun’s orbit around the center of the Milky Way galaxy, and that galaxy’s migration relative to other galaxies. Dynamics is the study of the relationships between motion and forces. One of its branches is Kinematics, which is the lesson for this experiment, is a branch of mechanics that consists of the study of motion without considering the forces that cause or develop the motion. Kinematics can be described in terms of space and time. Motion is the action of changing position. The aspects of motion are time, position, displacement, velocity and acceleration. Newton has described objects in motion in balanced and unbalanced state. There is equilibrium to the object with balanced forces that are acting on it. He said that the object will never accelerate if there will be no net force acting on it. Thus, the velocity is constant and its acceleration is always zero. In the Second Law of Motion, he showed that an object will have acceleration due to unbalanced forces acting on it. There are two forces considered, net force and the mass of the object or the gravitational pull. Gravity is an existing force wherever the object is on. It is the pull of Earth in every object it is near with or within the atmosphere. Thus, there is always force acting on an object. Experiment 102: Kinematics deals with the simplest type of motion, which is the motion of a particle in a straight line. In the experiment, a dynamics cart is used as well as a dynamics track, two photogates and photogate mounting brackets, a picket fence, a meter stick, an iron stand, and an iron stand. The experiment is subdivided into three parts. In the first part, the displacement of the dynamics cart is directly measured along with the time the dynamics cart spent travelling from the first photogate to the second photogate. The second part of the experiment immediately quantifies the height of the track, and the acceleration of the dynamics cart, as measured by the smart timer when the cart passes through the photogate. In this part, the dynamics cart is inclined and the inclination is getting steeper as this part of the experiment comes to an end. An approximation of the acceleration due to gravity, also known as the gravitational constant, is calculated through dropping the picket fence within the photogate and taking the acceleration reading on the smart timer is done on the last part of the experiment.

This picture is an example of a graph of Time versus Velocity

In this experiment, the motion of the object moves along a straight line and it is called one-dimensional motion. It can be described in terms of space and time. The moving object in kinematics is represented as particle. In linear kinematics, or one-dimensional motion, the object can be considered moving along the x-axis with the position that can be described at all times. The objective of this experiment is to study motion by determining the velocity and acceleration and to determine experimentally the acceleration due to gravity. We are instructed to not misuse the components of the set-up, like the car being used as a roller skate, and to be sure that we are using 220V-AC source to power the smart timer. The motion of the object in kinematics is represented by a particle. In one dimensional motion, the particle can be considered moving along the x-axis with a position that can be described at all times.

This picture shows our 1-dimensional track for our experiment

Let the origin be the particle’s initial position, X0 at the initial time t0, after a time interval t, the particle is now at point X. Instantaneous velocity of the particle is equal to the instantaneous rate of...