Dystonia, a neurological condition or movement disorder wherein the neurological ‘machinery’ controlling the relaxation of muscles that are not in use function inappropriately. Abnormal messages or signals are sent from the movement control centre of the brain to the muscles of the body; these irregular transmissions cause the muscles to contract and twist into involuntary spasms, uncomfortable positions or abnormal postures.
Dystonia can affect many or single muscle groups in the body, also meaning that the symptoms can range from quite severe to minimal depending on the extent of the disorder. Dystonia is not limited to one gender and can present itself at any age. Although there are many forms of Dystonia , the disorder can be (generally) categorized into two immediate groups, primary and secondary Dystonia. Primary Dystonia is seen as a genetically based type of Dystonia and is most commonly found in children. Although primary Dystonia can be a debilitating disease, it does not usually affect the non-movement related functions of the brain meaning that the person who has the disorder would be able to comprehend their situation but not physically express themselves or live to a normal capacity in worst case scenarios. In the primary Dystonia group also resides another branch called late-onset or adult-onset primary Dystonia that is developed over the age of 30; it is presumed to be a hereditary disorder and is less common. The other type (group) of Dystonia is called secondary Dystonia. Secondary Dystonia is usually the result of injury, pressure or trauma to the brain but it can also be an unseen result of illness or disease .
Dystonia the name originated from a man called DR. Hermann Oppenheim (1858-1919); He opened a centre for clinical neurology in 1980 and wrote information on brain tumours and syphilis of the brain. In 1911 Oppenheim invented the term ‘Dystonia muscular in deformans’; the term Dystonia is used regularly in modern times. Before...
References: http://www.medtronicneuro.com.au, made by Medtronic – managing movement disorders, section: improving life – by controlling involuntary movement, document title: treatment options for Dystonia, last updated: 17th December 2007, Australian site.
http://www.brainaustralia.org.au, made by the brain foundation: brain Australia – an initiative of the brain foundation, section: a-z brain disorders, document title: Dystonia, last updated: September 2008, Australian site.
http://www.dystonia-foundation.org, made by the Dystonia medical research foundation, section: what is Dystonia?, last updated: 2006, Canadian site.
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