Topics: Dyslexia, Learning disability, Reading Pages: 13 (3532 words) Published: April 5, 2013
The word dyslexia is derived from the Greek word, dys, meaning poor or inadequate, and the word lexis, meaning words or language. Dyslexia is a learning disorder characterized by problems in processing words into meaningful information. This is most strongly reflected in difficulty in learning to read. What is Dyslexia?

For almost a century after dyslexia was first described in a British medical journal in 1896, it was thought to be the result of a visual processing problem. Various forms of eye training were tried to improve visual perception; these generally failed. Today, researchers understand that dyslexia is a problem that arises from difficulties or inefficiencies in the brain in analyzing and processing individual letter sounds (called phonemes) and blending them into words at a speed that allows comprehension and fluency. Thus, the most prominent sign of dyslexia is difficulty in learning to read. Nevertheless, people with dyslexia may have other language-related deficits such as problems understanding rapid speech, difficulty in following complex or multi-part instructions, or trouble remembering things in correct sequence. Because of the difficulty in processing letter sounds, people with dyslexia are often poor spellers. It was once thought that letter reversal (e.g., from instead of form) was a sign of dyslexia, but as of 2008, research finds that although dyslectics do reverse letters, this problem is no more common in people with dyslexia than in those without the disorder. Dyslexia is a specific reading disability due to a defect in the brain's processing of graphic symbols. Dyslexia is a learning disability that alters the way the brain processes written material. Two commonly held beliefs about dyslexia are that children with it are prone to seeing letters or words backward, and that the problem is linked to intelligence. Both beliefs are incorrect. The problem is a linguistic one, not a visual one, in dyslexia. And dyslexia in no way stems from any lack of intelligence. People with severe dyslexia can be brilliant.

According to Med lexicon’s medical dictionary:
Dyslexia is impaired reading ability with a competence level below that expected on the basis of the person's level of intelligence, and in the presence of normal vision, letter recognition, and recognition of the meaning of pictures and objects.

The effects of dyslexia, in fact, vary from person to person. The only shared trait among people with dyslexia is that they read at levels significantly lower than typical for people of their age. Dyslexia is different from reading retardation which may reflect mental retardation or cultural deprivation. Dyslexia is thought to be one of the most common learning difficulties. It is estimated that 4-8% of all schoolchildren in England have some degree of dyslexia. Dyslexia appears to be more common in boys than girls. For example, it is estimated that boys are one-and-a-half to three times more likely to develop dyslexia than girls. Dyslexia affects people of all ethnic backgrounds, although a person's native language can play an important role. A language where there is a clear connection between how a word is written and how it sounds, and consistent rules grammatical rules, such as in Italian and Spanish, can be more straightforward for a person with mild to moderate dyslexia to cope with. However, languages such as English, where there is often no clear connection between the written form and sound, as in words such as 'cough' and 'dough', can be more challenging for a person with dyslexia. Types of Dyslexia

Visual dyslexia is the term used for the specific learning disability termed visual processing disorder. This form of dyslexia is the result of immature development of not only the eyes, but the whole process that gets information from the eyes to the brain. Eyes that are not completely developed will send incomplete information to the brain. Incomplete...
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