Topics: United States, Police, Supreme Court of the United States, Racial profiling, Race / Pages: 6 (1400 words) / Published: Feb 17th, 2014
"In the literature to date, there appear to be at least two clearly distinguishable definitions of the term 'racial profiling': a narrow definition and a broad definition... Under the narrow definition, racial profiling occurs when a police officer stops, questions, arrests, and/or searches someone solely on the basis of the person's race or ethnicity... Under the broader definition, racial profiling occurs whenever police routinely use race as a factor that, along with an accumulation of other factors, causes an officer to react with suspicion and take action."-Jim Cleary[4]
In the United States[edit]

See also: Airport racial profiling in the United States
Examples of racial profiling on ethnic groups in the U.S. include African Americans - committing crimes generally on drugs, weapons, and violence related matters, Hispanic and Latinos - Illegal Immigration, Chinese Americans - spies, and Arab and Muslims - Terrorism.
The existence of racial profiling dates back to slavery. In 1693, Philadelphia’s court officials gave police legal authority to stop and detain any Negro (freed or slaved) seen wandering around on the streets. This discriminatory practice continued through the Jim Crow era and now in the twentyfirst century, racial profiling is prevalent across cities in the U.S.[5]
In 1996 the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in U.S. v. Armstrong that racial profiling is constitutional in the absence of data that "similarly situated" defendants of another race were disparately treated,[6][7] overturning a 9th Circuit Court ruling that law enforcement must proceed on "the presumption that people of all races commit all types of crimes - not with the premise that any type of crime is the exclusive province of any particular racial or ethnic group", waving away challenges based on the Fourth Amendment of the U.S. Constitution which guarantees the right to be safe from search and seizure without a warrant (which is to be issued "upon

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