Functions of Blood * Transport of gases, nutrients, and waste products. * Transport of processed molecules. (Vitamin D, Lactic Acid) * Transport of regulatory hormones. * Regulation of pH and Osmosis. * Maintenance of Body Temp. * Protection against foreign substances. * Clot Formation.
Blood is a connective tissue that consists of a liquid matrix containing cell and cell fragments. * Plasma – Liquid Matrix * Formed Elements – cell
Plasma is a pale yellow fluid that consist of: * 91% Water * 7% Protein * 2% Others (Ions,nutrients)
Plasma contains dissolved proteins. * Albumin – makes of 58% of the plasma protein. Important contribution in Osmotic Pressure. * Globulin – 38%. These are antibodies; has clotting factors. * Fibrinogen – 4%. Activation of clotting factors converts fibrinogen to fibrin, a threadlike protein that forms blood clots.
Serum is plasma w/o clotting factors.
Formed Elements * Red blood cells or erythrocytes constitute 95% of the total formed elements. * White blood cells or leukocytes and * Platelets or thrombocytes constitute for the remaining 5%. Hematopoiesis is the process of blood cell production and is confined primarily to red bone marrow, and lymphatic tissues.
Stem Cells or hemocytoblasts is where all the formed elements are derived from.
Growth factors determine the types of formed elements derived from the stem cells.
Red Blood Cells * Disk-shaped * Edges are thicker than the center of the cell * Can bend or fold * Gases moves in and out easily. * Loses their nuclei to be mature. * Lives for 120 days +/ -
Hemoglobin is the main component of a red blood cell. This accounts for 1/3 of the total volume and is responsible for the red color.
Oxygen transport is accomplished by hemoglobin. 98.5% of the oxygen transport.
Hemoglobin that is * Bound by oxygen is bright red * Not bound by oxygen is a darker