The focus of the article “Dualism Defended” by J.P. Moreland is the conflict between Physicalism, the idea that the only thing that exists is matter, and Dualism, the idea that not just a body exists, but a mind/soul as well. In his article, J.P. Moreland argues against Physicalism. He presents that if theism is true, then Physicalism must be false because a God is not a physical entity and must therefore fall under the mind/soul category presented in Dualism. Also proposed by Moreland is that some events, acts of kindness, have a non-physical property of righteousness and that moral laws are often assumed to be absolute, objective realities. For example, one should always knock before they enter the bathroom. If these moral laws exist then, again, Physicalism must be false. Moreland also argues that a number of people believe that numbers exist non-physically as values and also cannot be explained by Physicalism, but can be explained by Dualism. A subfield of Physicalism is Mind/Body Physicalism, which is the belief that the mind and the body are one in the same. Moreland refutes this theory by stating that if something is identical to something else, everything about them must be alike and says, “The redness and roundness of an apple, though inseparable, are not identical.” Brain events have mental events that correspond with them, but they are not the exact same thing, which is what Moreland argues has to be true for Mind/Body Physicalism to be valid. Another point that Moreland makes is that Physicalism can’t explain the experience of first-person subjectivity, which is your ability to experience what you are seeing through your own eyes in the first person; something that only you can experience. And finally, Moreland argues that from a Physicalist viewpoint one’s identity is not constant; you are a different person at every instant in time because there is no soul to remain unchanging as your body changes.
Moreland writes, “If...
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