Topics: Drug addiction, Sociology, Criminology Pages: 2 (1293 words) Published: October 25, 2014

Etiology is defined as the study of causes and deals with what causes social phenomenon’s such as drug use (Faupel 2014, p.109). Research suggests the cause of drug use is a mixture of biological and psychological factors. However, theories have included cultural and structural factors contribute to the rise of drug use. There have been multiple theories to explain the prevalence of drug use. However, the integrated structural gives a proper balance of biological, structural, cultural and psychological issues pushing people into drug use. The integrated structural theory combined the elements of strain theory and cultural deviance theory. Robert Merton developed the basis for strain theory. Merton developed five modes of adaptation including conformity, innovation, retreatism, ritualism and rebellion. Merton argues that there are three ways in order for strain to be produced. This includes a persons motivation or adherence to cultural goals and a persons belief on how to achieve his goals. Robert Agnew’s revision of the strain theory focuses on measuring strain, the different types of strain, how strain and crime parallel and solutions to strain (Agnew 1992, p.73). Clifford Shaw and Henry McCay developed the cultural deviance theory. The explanation for this theory is that “drug use and other forms of delinquency are a consequence of life in transitional neighborhoods characterized by residential turnover and lack of a strong community to encourage conventional values” (Faupel 2014, p.155). This theory asserts that people from disorganized neighborhoods are prone to drug use due to the low class structure. Both these theories would not be the best solution individually because hey only cover one part of the issue. Charles Winick that combined elements of the strain and cultural deviance theories developed the integrated structural theory. Winick’s theory asserts that “access to drugs, disengagement from normative proscriptions against drug use and role...
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