Drugs known to cause addiction include illegal drugs as well as prescription or over-the-counter drugs, according to the definition of the American Society of Addiction Medicine. • Stimulants: o Amphetamine and methamphetamine o Cocaine o Nicotine • Sedatives and hypnotics: o Alcohol o Barbiturates o Benzodiazepines, particularly flunitrazepam, triazolam, temazepam, and nimetazepam o Methaqualone and the related quinazolinone sedative-hypnotics • Opiate and opioid analgesics o Morphine and codeine, the two naturally occurring opiate analgesics o Semi-synthetic opiates, such as heroin (diacetylmorphine), oxycodone, hydrocodone, and hydromorphone o Fully synthetic opioids, such as fentanyl, meperidine/pethidine, and methadone
The German drug company Bayer named its new over the counter drug "Heroin" in 1895. The name was derived from the German word "heroisch" (heroic) due to its perceived "heroic" effects upon a user. It was chiefly developed as a morphine substitute for cough suppressants that did not have morphine's addictive side-effects. Morphine at the time was a popular recreational drug, and Bayer wished to find a similar but non-addictive substitute to market. However, contrary to Bayer's advertising as a "non-addictive morphine substitute," heroin would soon have one of the highest rates of dependence amongst its users.
Diacetylmorphine is used as a recreational drug for the transcendent relaxation and intense euphoria it induces. Anthropologist Michael Agar once described heroin as "the perfect