1) Thesis of the article #1
Nearly all drug use begins in the preadolescent or adolescent years. 2) Summary
The focus of this article is on theories such as the gateway, psychological & sociological theories that cause drug abuse in youth. These theories demonstrate why drugs were used and under the circumstances in which they were most frequently consumed. The social theory of Parson’s structural functionalism explains how drug use is a symptom of the underlying social problems (Jacobs, 1977; Lukoff, 1980) indicating that drugs can also isolate a youth from the segments of society that might influence them in a positive behavior. Psychological theories perceive drugs as the acquisition of a personal need or compensating for an individuals predicament. The article further goes on to indicate that drugs are also consumed as a means of coping with any of the following issues such as problems with friends, work or spousal relationships and domestic troubles to such an extent where no other coping method can be effective compared to drugs. Specific actions of the drug fill a very important void in a person’s development or life (Gold, 1980; Khantzian, 1980; Spotts and Scontz, 1980, 1984a, 1984b). This statement is indicative that individuals, who no longer have the will to persevere or have in essence given up on life, unfortunately resort to satisfying the emptiness they feel within themselves and in their lives by using drugs.
3) Evaluation of the article
The authors, E.R Oetting and Fred Beauvais, have presented a concise thesis statement using clear vocabulary providing a crisp image of their findings. Oetting and Beauvais have elucidated the social and psychological theories in detail using coherent examples allowing the reader to understand the article easily. The authors have affirmed their research methods by consistently providing references throughout the article. Moreover, several of the sources that the author has used are...
Bibliography: 1) Oetting, E.R. & Beauvais, Fred. 1988. Common Elements in Youth Drug Abuse: Peer Clusters and other Psychosocial Factors. Visions of Addiction., 141-143.
Brook, J.S., I.F Lukoff, and M. Whiteman. 1977. Correlates of Marijuana Use as Related to Age, Sex, and Ethnicity. Yale Journal of Biological Medicine 50: 383-390
Jacobs, P.E. 1977. Epidemiology Abuse: Epidemiological and Psychosocial Models. In J. Fishman, ed., The Bases of Addiction. Berlin: Bernhard, Danlen, Konferenzen.
Khanzian, E.J. 1980. An Ego/Self Theory of Substance Dependance: A Contemporary Psychoanalytic Perspective. In D.J. Lettieri, M. Sayers, and H.W. Pearson, eds.
Possi, M.K. 1993. Critique on ‘The Shadow of Children: Preparing for the Arrival of Crack Babies in schools’. Mimeo.
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