People indulge in cycling for both recreational and professional reasons. Amateurs participate in cycling to display their skill and to experience the satisfaction that comes from competing against their peers, professionals cycle to satisfy their desire for recognition, fame and a hefty pay check that comes with endorsements from major brands. This desire to win at all cost has brought with it many problems which include doping to gain a competitive edge over opponents. Furthermore some of these practices are addictive, harmful and even life threatening. . This review paper seeks to explain the use and health implications of doping in cycling.
“He did it. He finally admitted it. Lance Armstrong doped. He was light on the details and didn't name names. He mused that he might not have been caught if not for his comeback in 2009. And he was certain his "fate was sealed" when long-time friend, training partner and trusted lieutenant George Hincapie, who was along for the ride on all seven of Armstrong's Tour de France wins from 1999-2005, was forced to give him up to anti-doping authorities. But right from the start and more than two dozen times during the first of a two-part interview Thursday night with Oprah Winfrey on her OWN network, the disgraced former cycling champion acknowledged what he had lied about repeatedly for years, and what had been one of the worst-kept secrets for the better part of a week: He was the ringleader of an elaborate doping scheme on a U.S. Postal Service team that swept him to the top of the podium at the Tour de France time after time…” 1 This is an excerpt from ESPN.com news services of the confession made by seven time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong to Oprah Winfrey where he admitted to doping during all seven of his triumphs. Professional cycling, one of the most popular sports in the world and rich in history, has been plagued in recent years by suspicions of performance-enhancing drug use by many riders, positive drug tests, and even the dethroning of recent Tour de France winners are part of the doping scandals that has engulfed modern cycling. Doping may be defined as administering drugs to (a racehorse, greyhound, or athlete) in order to inhibit or enhance sporting performance.2 It has become a common practice among elite sportsmen and is destroying the innocence of various sporting disciplines. One of the most affected is cycling, in this report the following will be discussed: •
History of doping
Reasons for doping
Methods of doping in cycling
Methods used to evade detection
Health implications of the various forms of doping
Ways of preventing doping in sports
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The computer was used in the research of information for this review paper. “Google” was used as the search engine. The method was mainly by literature review. The following keywords were used: •
Definition of doping
History of doping in cycling
Ways athletes use to avoid getting caught
Doping in cycling
Health implications of doping
Why people take performance enhancing drugs
How to prevent doping in sports
About 2000 “hits” were obtained from the keywords typed and the information chosen was from websites of public and private educational institutions and organization. Ten of these hits were used in the review paper. •
HISTORY OF DOPING IN CYCLING
The use of performance enhancing substances is certainly not new to cycling. In fact, the sport has had to face the issue for over a century, arguably longer than any other organized sport. Because of this dubious and lengthy history, cycling perhaps provides one of the best examples for analysis of doping in sports. Bicycle racing can trace its roots as far back as 1868 when Englishman James Moore won the first organized race in France. The first world championships were held in 1893, and cycling has been included in every Olympics since the modern movement...
References: 1. ESPN.com news services article: Lance Armstrong comes clean (2013). Available at: http://espn.go.com/sports/endurance/story/_/id/8855686/lance-armstrong-admits-doping-interview-oprah-winfrey. Accessed on July 5, 2013.
2. Oxford dictionary definition of doping (2013). Available at http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/dope. Accessed on July 5, 2013.
3. The United States sports academy article: Doping part of professional cycling’s culture (2013). Available at: http://thesportdigest.com/2012/06/doping-part-of-professional-cyclings-culture/. Accessed on July 5, 2013.
4. E-steroid.com website. Available at:http://www.e-steroid.com/steroid-articles/.html, Accessed on July 5, 2013
5. National Institute On Drug Abuse Research Report Series: Anabolic steroid abuse (2001), Available at:http://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/rrsteroids_0.pdf, Accessed on July 5, 2013
6. Smith DA, Perry PJ. The efficacy of ergogenic agents in athletic competition. Part II: Other performance-enhancing agents. Ann Pharmacother. 1992; 26:653-659.
7. World Anti-Doping Agency. Available at: http://www.wada-ama.org/en/About-WADA/, Accessed on 5 July 2013.
8. Mayoclinic article: Performance enhancing drugs- know the risks, Available at: http://mayoclinic.com/performance-anhancing-drugs/ , accessed on July 5, 2013
9. Types of drugs and methods used in cycling, Available at: http://bikepure.org/resources/list-of-banned-substances/types-of-drugs-and-methods-used-in-cycling/ , Accessed on July 5, 2013
10. Adventure journal article:6 methods doping pro cyclists use to not get caught(2013), Available at http://www.adventure-journal.com/2010/02/6-methods-doping-pro-cyclists-use-to-not-get-caught/
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