Domestic vs International Hrm

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There are some commonalities in IHRM and domestic HRM practices, particularly in areas like; HR planning and staffing, recruitment and selection, appraisal and development, rewards, etc the main distinctions, however, lies in the fact that while domestic HRM is involved with employees within only one national boundary, IHRM deals with three national or country categories, i.e., the parent country where the firm is actually originated and headquartered; the host country where the subsidiary is located; and other countries from where the organization may source the labour, finance or research and development. This is because there are three types of employees in an international organization, i.e.

Parent country nationals (PCNs);

A parent-country national is a person working in a country other than their country of origin. Such a person is also referred to as an expatriate. Long periods of assignment (perhaps 4 –5 years or more) may run the risk of “de facto” employee status in the host country, so that labor laws or the host country apply.

A U.S. parent-country national residing abroad still owes U.S. taxes each year on his or her worldwide income. The US has income tax treaties with over 35 other countries. The IRS and the foreign taxing authorities can exchange information on their citizens living in the other country. Qualifying U.S. citizens and residents working outside the United States are permitted to elect to exclude a portion of their foreign earned income under the Internal Revenue Code (IRC). This section provides a general exclusion limited to a specified amount, another exclusion measured by foreign housing costs, and, for self-employed persons, a foreign housing cost deduction.

To qualify for the foreign earned income and housing cost exclusions, the individual must have foreign earned income, his or her tax home must be in a foreign country, and he or she must meet either of two tests:
The bona fide residence test, which requires the

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