Does gender have an effect in the Prevalence of types of glaucoma in urban population?
Farah Akhtar1, §, Shazia Micheal2, Muhammad Imran Khan2, Sajeela yousaf 2, Muhammad Bilal3, Asifa Ahmed2, Raheel Qamar2, 4
1Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan, 2Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan, 3POF Hospital, Wah Cantt, Pakistan, 4Shifa College of Medicine, Islamabad, Pakistan.
§Correspondence should be addressed to:
Farah Akhtar, FCPS, DOMS, MBBS, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Jhelum Road, Rawalpindi -46000, Pakistan. Phone: +92-3335160266 email:email@example.com
Glaucoma is the second leading cause of the blindness and epidemiologic studies of humans demonstrated significant differences between the genders in the propensity to develop various types of glaucoma. Objective: To assess the prevalence of types of glaucoma, blindness and severity with respect to gender differences. Design and Methods: Retrospective study including 3021 patients examined for types of glaucoma to determine the gender inequality in loss of vision. Data was analyzed with the statistical software SPSS. Results: It was found that overall the ratio 2.3: 1 of males affected with glaucoma is higher then females. Males have a more prevalent POAG type of glaucoma whereas females are suffering more from PCAG glaucoma. Although the overall prevalence is higher in males but the blindness rate is greater in all types of glaucoma in females. Surgery of greater number of females is performed due to severe conditions in POAG whereas PEXG and NTG are more pronounced in males. Conclusion: Females have PCAG more prevalent while males have POAG which are the two major types. Overall the blindness rate in different types of glaucoma is high in females therefore the results of present study indicated that gender does have an effect in the prevalence and blindness due to different types of glaucoma. Introduction
Glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease of the optic nerve which occurs due to the progressive loss of optic nerve axons and death of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) . It is the second leading cause of blindness affecting 70 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that the prevalence of glaucoma will be increased and the turn over of the number of cases will be 79.6 million in the year 2020 . As glaucoma is a heterogeneous and multifactorial disease therefore it represents a number of different conditions which are responsible for the damage of the optic nerve and loss of vision associated with visual field defects and elevated intraocular pressure . In recent years the gender difference has attained much attention in the prevalence of various types of glaucoma in populations of different countries and continents. There is a requirement of fastidious consideration to gender differences in blindness for understanding of targets for blindness reduction and in the development of interventions. In different neurodegerative and blinding eye diseases it has been observed that gender have quite important targets and role in the manifestation, progression and commencement of the disease. Females have 1.9 higher risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s disease by 3.1, most of the American studies reported equal rates whereas Europeans had shown higher rates of dementia in women. Also females have increased risk of developing hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes as compared to men. It is observed that although gender differences in neurodegenerative processes are still unexplored, appears to offer great promise for the future development of better strategies for the cure of diseases and betterment of patients [4-7]. In recent years it is a topic of concern in the eye diseases that do gender have any effect or not and there are different reports explaining importance of gender. Rudnicka AR et al had concluded through a Meta-analysis study of 46 studies...
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