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THE CONTRIBUTION OF TRAINING TO EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE:
A CASE STUDY OF THE NATIONAL DRUG AUTHORITY (NDA)

BY
AKELLO BETTY

index No:
MAY/2006/BPAM/004/WEEKEND

RESEARCH PROPOSAL SUBMITTED TO THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE AWARD OF A BACHELORS DEGREE IN PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT OF NKUMBA UNIVERSITY.

October 2014

Declaration
I Betty Akello, hereby declare that the work presented is original and has never been submitted to any university or institution either in total or part for the award of a degree. This work has never been published before.

………………………… ……………………...
Betty Akello Date

Approval
I certify that this dissertation has been submitted with my approval as supervisor

……………………………… …………………………
Professor. Dr. Ijuka Kabumba Date

Dedication

This research is dedicated to my parents; though late now, left the dream that I have made a reality. Major Stephen Abili and Mrs Clementina Abili;

To my siblings Patrick, Dorcas, George, Malcolm and Stephen;

To my nieces and nephews;

To Professor W.W. Anokbonggo and his entire family;

To Eunice Musiime, Ronald Obel, James Mukanga, Francis Katende, and John Ssempebwa who contributed to my education.

To Moses Semakula, Umar Mayanja, Kenneth Nkumiro, Ben Egesa, Steve Chris Magala, Justine Acio, and Denis Kakooza

And above all to Dr. Ijuka Kabumba who tirelessly and patiently read through my piece of work correcting all the errors and making sure I present a thorough piece of work.

TO GOD BE ALL THE GLORY.

Acknowledgement
I wish to express my gratitude to all those people who helped me in carrying out this research study. This book has benefited substantive inputs and comments from many people and organisations in particular the resource centre at the National Drug Authority.

In a special way I wish to thank the ladies and gentlemen at the resource centre of the National Drug Authority who assisted me in data collection and guided me to the rightful respondents during my field research.

I wish to emphasise that this work should have been submitted to Nkumba University in February 2010. However, due to circumstances beyond my control, the submission could not be done until June 2014. Nevertheless, no update of data has been made. So, this data reflects the situation in 2010 not 2014.

Great appreciation goes to my supervisor Professor Dr. Ijuka Kabumba for his tireless effort in guiding me through the whole research and for the knowledge and the books he shared with me. I am also thankful to Mr. Musisi and Moses Semakula who taught me research methods and shared several text books on research methods respectively.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of tables

Table (1): Category of respondents

Table (2): Sex distribution of respondents

Table (3): Age distribution of respondents

Table (4): Job designation of respondents

Table (5): Education level of respondents

Table (6): Period of service of respondents

Table (7): Forms of training carried out at the NDA.

Table (8): Objectives / reasons for training

Table (9): Training incentives offered at the NDA

Table (10): Problems faced in training

Table (11): Measures to improve training of employees

Table (12): Link between employee training and employee performance

List of Acronyms

CAO: Chief Administrative Officer

ED: Executive Director

HRM: Human Resource Manager

NDA: National Drug Authority

UNISE: Uganda National Institute of Special Education

Vol: Volume

CHAPTER ONE
GENERAL INTRODUCTION

1.0 Introduction
This chapter provides a discussion of the contribution of training to employee performance with specific reference to the National Drug Authority. It entails the background to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, among others.

Regarding the concept of training, this is a human resource management tool whose contribution fundamentally is to realise effective performance and service delivery. Training is defined as the application of systematic and planned instruction as well as development activities to enhance the learning process (Byre, 2007).

Proper training is training that is purposively designed, planned, and executed to meet or address defined needs. It is provided by managers who know how to train, and the effect of training is carefully evaluated. (Keagan, 1997).

A well designed and implemented training program should enhance employee performance and excellence by producing the desired results on job in a bid to address the bottlenecks.

Training takes two forms i.e. informal and formal training. Informal training is experiential training. A study by Button Silvester (2003) established that in institutions adopting a learner-centred perspective, formal education and training provided only a small part of what was learnt at work. Most of the learning described to the researchers was non-formal, neither clearly specified nor planned.

Effective learning through training was however dependent on the employees’ confidence, attitude and capacity. Some formal training to enhance skills (induction) was usually provided, but learning from experience and other people at work predominated.

1.1 Background to the Study
Training is the main focus in the study because it is a very pertinent tool in management if employees and institutions are to realise their ultimate goals.

It is important to note that employees vary in the degree to which they are willing to dispense their efforts towards the achievement of organisational goals. The researchers’ view is that the differences in performance among employees reflect differences in their degree of training.

The business case for learning and training should demonstrate how learning, training and development programs will meet business needs. The areas of the business strategy that depend on the availability of talented people should be analysed. In addition, it is important to note the organisation’s strategic aims concerning, for example, the development of a high performance culture productivity improvements, achieving better levels of service delivery to customers, or the extended use of information technology or other forms of technology that will impact on knowledge and skill requirements (Morgan, 2006).

Training programs may consist of a short form of training course, a series of training modules, or a fairly lengthy continuous period of craft training, as in a model apprenticeship.

At national level, training in Uganda is regarded important. In 1993 for instance, an Act of parliament mandated the Uganda National Institute of Special Education – UNISE (now Faculty of Special Needs and Rehabilitation, Kyambogo University) to train special needs education teachers. The initiative has enabled Uganda to begin responding to the call for education for all regardless of their disabilities.

The researcher intends to analyse the contribution of training towards employee performance with specific reference to National Drug Authority.

National Drug Authority was established in 1994 by an Act of parliament, in this respect, the National Drug Authority policy and authority Act (1994) entrusts the National Drug Authority with the task of overseeing the entire pharmaceutical industry in Uganda.

National Drug Authority is thus the sole regulatory and controlling body in Uganda with regard to pharmaceutical products. The entire populace of Uganda thus relies on the National Drug Authority as far as the right kind (quality and price) of pharmaceutical products available is concerned. National Drug Authority has a clear policy set out in the above Act to enable it carry out its functions. These include:-
i. To ensure that essential, safe, effacious, and cost effective drugs are made available to the entire population of Uganda to provide satisfactory health care. ii. To make a continuous review of the needs, knowledge and resources of essential drugs. iii. To provide systematic public information, professional training and training of health workers. iv. To intensify research in all types of drugs including traditional medicines.
v. To fight against drug and substance abuse.

The Act also empowers the National Drug Authority to regulate the importation and use of pharmaceuticals in the public as well as the private sector and any matter related to the above.

National Drug Authority in Uganda has streamlined the importation of drugs into the country by being vigilant on the importers.

National Drug Authority developed training programs that are relevant to departments. Every department has a training module with different training packages for staff. Each staff trains in accordance with the modules. Heads of department together with the training coordinator select staff for training depending on the training needs of the employees and the Authority.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Despite the training policy adopted by National Drug Authority to ensure effective and efficient training programs in order to ensure high performance of the employee, there are still traits of poor performance among employees. This is attributed to a number of factors such as poor employee attitude towards training, inadequate training facilities, low morale on the side of trainers, poor selection performance trainees, poor selection of performance of trainers, un-conducive training environment and, uncoordinated training schedules (NDA annual performance evaluation report; 2010).

For example; according to NDA annual performance report (2010); the performance rate of the employees in the procurement and logistic department was in a critical state despite the beginning of year annual performance on job training seminars that they received for a month. The report indicated employee inaccuracy in tasks performed; reduced employee reliability; reduced employee efficiency; reduced efficient use of work tools; reduced speed and reduced employee Competence in the procurement department. The failure of the training seminar to induce the required performance rate in the procurement and logistic department was attributed to uncoordinated training schedules and poor selection of trainers which did not facilitate learning.

It is against this background that the research intends to analyze the contribution of training towards employee performance with specific reference to the National Drug Authority.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.3.1 General Objective
i. The general objective of this study is to find out the contribution of training to employee performance, using a case study of the National Drug Authority (NDA).

1.3.2 Specific Objectives
The specific of the study are:-
a) To define ‘trainig’ including types, and employee performance.
b) To identify the objectives of / reasons for training.
c) To find out the problems faced in training.
d) To suggest measures that can improve the training of employees; and so, their performance.

1.4 Research Questions
i. What are the objectives of / reasons for training? ii. What are the problems faced in training? iii. What measures have been put in place to improve the training of employees? iv. To what extent have the measures led to improved performance on the part of employees?

1.5 Scope Of The Study
The study will focus on the National Drug Authority (NDA) whose headquarters are located on Lumumba Avenue, Kampala. The study shall focus on the link between employee training and employee performance. The study shall cover the period between 2008 – 2009. 1.6 Significance of the Study.
The research shall provide an important guideline into establishing appropriate and reliable policies as well as programmes for attainment of efficient training measures.
The findings are intended to provide up to date literature for academic utilization in the school of social sciences at Nkumba University. The research findings shall be applied as a basis for further research by students and other interested persons.

By investigating the contribution of training towards employee performance in National Drug Authority, it is hoped that the recommendations will guide National Drug Authority to adopt training policies that aim at developing employees to perform their duties expeditiously.

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction
The research analyses the contribution of training to employee performance at the National Drug Authority. The researcher intends to discover what other scholars have written or discovered with regard to the aspects related to the topic and then come up with a comparative analysis.

This chapter shall centre at the theoretical framework upon which the research is established, types of training applied, objectives of / reasons for training, problems faced in training as well as possible measures to enhance training of employees.

2.1 Definitions of Training and Employee Performance; and the types of training.
2.1.1 What Training Means
Kaleb (2003) defines training as a process of learning applied to a work room.

Armstrong (1999) on the other hand defines training as the use of systematic and planned instruction and development activities to enhance learning.

Busler (2005) states that training is the learning activity which is directed towards the acquisition of specific knowledge and skills for the purposes of an occupation or task.

Relevant training on the other hand is training that is specifically designed, planned, and implemented to meet defined needs. It is provided by people who know how to train, and the impact of training is carefully evaluated (Miller, 2004).

2.1.2 Types of Training Applied
On-The-Job Training
This involves instruction or coaching by trainers, managers or team supervisors in the work place. It may also consist of individual or group assignments and projects, and the use of mentors. Much of the learning can take place naturally through day-to-day contacts, although it will be most effective if specific learning objectives have been articulated (Brown, 2005).

Off-The-Job Training
This takes place in special courses, or in training areas or centres that have been specially equipped and staffed for training. It is the best way to acquire in advance, manual, office, customer service or selling skills, and to learn about company procedures and products.
It assists in increasing the identification of the trainee with the company as a whole, and the use of systematic training techniques, special equipment and trained trainers means that the basic skills and knowledge can be acquired quickly and often economically.

External Training
This is useful for the development of managerial, leadership, and technical skills, especially if the courses cover standard theory and practice which can easily be translated from the general to the particular (Kabukemba, 1999).

2.1.3 Employee Performance
Morgan (2001) defines employee performance as a yardstick undertaken by management to measure workers’ progress or way of doing things within an organisation.

Ceasar (2003) defines employee performance as workers’ attitude and ability to take up challenges or tasks or assignments that are geared to the objective goal of the organisation. Therefore, he reiterates that employee performance is based on personal morals and attitude towards one’s work or task assigned

2.2 The objectives of / reasons for training
Employee training has always been important in organisations. Depending on the nature of the organisation, it is not ethical for an employee to be assigned a job and told to do it. The employee must be trained that there are appropriate ways and inappropriate ways to perform their job.

Every training program needs to be designed separately, and the design will continually evolve as the new learning needs emerge, or when feed back indicates that changes are required. It is vital to consider carefully the objectives of the training program. Objectives can be defined as ‘criterion behaviour’, the standards of performance to be realised if training is to be regarded as successful. This should be a definition of what trainees will be able to do at the end of a training program, or when they return to work on completing a shorter course.
Due to labour turnover, every organisation has employees that previously worked for other organisations. Such employees bring with them totally different policies and procedures regarding how a specific task should be accomplished. Without training, an organisation would have its employees trying to accomplish the same task in different ways resulting in chaos.

Duncan (2006) envisages that due to the need for conformity and compliance with the regulations, organisations should have training programs for employees as theses have added value they attach. The researcher agrees with Winston’s view, however, the scholar does not go ahead to demonstrate any form of training program that can be incorporated by organisations thereby leaving the statement hanging.

A well formulated and implemented training program should improve staff performance by producing the desired results on job in order to overcome shortcomings. These short falls entail: poor performance on jobs, failure to perform required tasks due to lack of training, inadequate training facilities, low morale, uncoordinated communication channels among others.

Notwithstanding the shortfalls experienced by the management of various outstanding organisations in the line of training as mentioned above, there are a number of fundamental contributions underscored by National Drug Authority towards employee performance. As such, the researcher intends to investigate deeply and come up with an analysis of the contribution of training towards achieving this noble cause.

According to Mills (2004), training of staff in organisations enhances individual, team, and corporate performance in terms of output, quality, speed, and overall productivity. He further reiterates that training improves product quality and service to customers and increases motivation amongst employees. The researcher agrees with Steven’s opinion in the sense that training that is appropriate to the needs of an organisation can add great value to staff performance.

Training attracts high quality employees by offering them learning and development opportunities, increasing their levels of competence and enhancing their skills, thereby enabling them to obtain more job satisfaction, to gain higher rewards and to progress within the organisation. (Mbonye, 2002).

Training of staff improves operational flexibility by extending the range of skills possessed by employees (multi-tasking). The researcher agrees with Mbonye’s view in the sense that training of staff improves on his/her ability to cope up with the changes within the organisation that require flexibility. For instance, the training of staff in computer technology enables them to work efficiently in a short time and also helps them fit in the world of technology hence flexibility in work and service delivery.

Training of staff increases the commitment of employees by encouraging them to identify with the mission and objectives of the organisation.

On the contrary, much as this may be a contribution, employees may acquire the training and fail to deliver or commit themselves to the set objectives and mission. The researcher states that there are other incentives that could enhance work productivity alongside training; such as improved remuneration, favourable working environment, motivation e.t.c. these are very imperative tools of management which should not be ignored.

Training of employees helps to manage change by increasing understanding of the reasons for change, and providing people with the knowledge and skills they need to adjust to new situations (Jones, 2001).

Change is a gradual process that requires time and patience. The researcher thus agrees with Garvin’s view in the sense that managers tend to recommend their staff for training so as to prepare them for the new tasks or assignments. For example, in the police force and UPDF, recruitment is based on training where new entrants in the service are meant to undergo a nine (9) months cadet course at Kibuli or Masindi for the police officers and Kimaka-Jinja for the army officers so as to equip them with knowledge and skills pertaining to intelligence, military tactics, community policing and other security related aspects. This renders training a very important management tool with regard to changes and how to cope up with societal demands at the work place.

Training helps develop a positive culture in the organisation, for example, one that is oriented towards performance improvement. In addition to that, training provides higher levels of service to customers.

Training of staff in organisations is vital for the development of managerial, leadership and technical skills and imparting knowledge and techniques, processes and skills, especially if the courses cover standard theory and practice which can easily be translated from the general to the particular. Training also helps to increase the identification of the trainee with the company as a whole, and the use of systematic training techniques, special equipment and trained trainers means that the basic skills and knowledge can be acquired quickly and often economically.

Marble (2006) a community psychologist at the University of Chicago, states that employees cannot remain static in one position or task at work since this makes them shallow in skills and understanding of events and operations. In this era of technological advancement coupled with stiff competition for jobs, it becomes very prudent that managers encourage their employees to learn computer courses (short courses) so as to equip them with computer basics (packages) such as excel, and other software packages in order to ease their work and time factor without compromising quality. Computerised systems help employees to communicate effectively, transact business through intranet technology, automated machines as well as typing and printing of information, storage and record keeping. All these are important aspects that can be attained through information, communication and technology (ICT) courses as a form of training.

Training of employees shapes their attitude and behaviour towards work and at the same time adds value towards the production as well as the services offered. It promotes a sense of teamwork and capacity building which are very vital in employee relations. For example when employees are trained in counselling skills, they are able to tolerate each other, learn to harmonise and counsel each other, and at the same time develop a spirit of empathy (Mulera, 1997).

2.3 Problems Faced In the Training of Employees
Training is costly, and bulk training is hard to carry out in terms of budget constraints. There is also the temptation of using budget funds in other areas. Training becomes a waste of time and money when the desired behaviour does not occur and objectives are not realised (Muhakaniza, 2003).

Training of staff in organisations is a very expensive venture in terms of purchasing training equipment, paying off the trainers, feeding and accommodation costs for some institutions that provide such services, as well as meeting other utility expenses such as water, electricity etc. The other problem may be felt in accessing building structures and space as the training ground (Bakibinga, 2006).

The researcher agrees with Bakibinga. She would like to add that many companies have failed to conduct effective training due to financial costs intended and lack of training equipment to enable smooth training. This has jeopardised service delivery, reduced the degree of competence, and productivity in the long run.

On-the-job training may be constraining in that the effectiveness of the learning is greatly influenced by the quality of the guidance and counselling provided on the job. Most managers and team leaders are unskilled at training, and disinclined to carry out or encourage it. Depending on fellow employees, ‘sit by me’ training has equally obvious shortcomings. The directive may be inadequate and the training may perpetuate bad habits (Akello, 2005).

The researcher agrees with Zupra (2006) that, in training, the trainee may be distracted by the environment and find it difficult to acquire basic skills expeditiously.

The biggest problem with external training is shifting learning into practice; this is made worse by the external courses. However, effective the training, knowledge and skills rendered may be dissipated quickly unless they are handled immediately. It may also be difficult to select relevant courses from the bewildering variety available (Robins, 2001).

According to Sekamwa (1997), training is made difficult due to the low attitude of both the trainees and trainers and this is escalated by the slow pace of some trainees with regard to grasping training lessons or practical sessions that are conducted. He adds that some employees fail to improve their skills and accuracy due to their poor education background.

The researcher however disagrees with Sekamwa’s view in that, the scholar does not give the causes of the low attitude, at the same time, the management may partly take the blame by either failing to motivate its staff or provide the necessary training incentives.

The researcher also disagrees with the view that some employees fail to improve their skills due to their poor education background since it’s the duty of the organisation to create a favourable environment that can shape the levels of skills and competencies despite one’s education background. The researcher further reiterates that some employees whose education background is sound have also failed to prove a point in as far as improved employee productivity is concerned.

It is very absurd to note that some employees are sent on courses (refresher courses) that are not commensurate with what they do at their places of work. This at the end of the day does not yield good results both for the organisation and for the individual employee. Take for example, sending civil servants such as CAO’s, sub county chiefs, and local council chiefs to Kyankwanzi Leadership Institute to train in military and political leadership skills. How can such skills be of great help to civil servants who deal with purely financial matters? This remains to be seen. In fact, a lot of tax payers’ money is wasted in training, feeding, and accommodation offered to wrong people instead of using such funds to cater for other social services and demands.

2.4 Measures to Enhance the Training of Employees
Evaluation of training in order to assess or ascertain its effectiveness in producing the learning outcomes specified when the training intervention was planned, and to indicate where improvements or changes are to be made to enable smooth training and accuracy. (Mayiga, 2001).

In order to improve the levels of training of employees, Barlett (1998) noted that companies should design proper training schedules that incorporate the interests and demands of the trainees. With such an arrangement in place, employees on training will be able to respond positively to the call for training and also keep time as to accomplish the day-day training sessions.

The researcher agrees with Barlett’s view in that proper established training schedules give time to the trainees to set themselves and prepare for the training session. It also acts as a guideline towards effective training and follow of programs without any created confusion. This is a clear manifestation of a systematic procedure of doing things within an organisation set up.

Training needs analysis; this is a very important strategy in management since it helps to identify the knowledge and skills people must posses in order to perform effectively on the job and prescribes the appropriate interventions that can narrow this gap (Baryomunsi, 2004).

The researcher also supplements on Stella’s (2005) view by stating the need to involve staff in reviewing performance and identifying training needs so as to select the training relevant to staff needs.

Christine (2005) states that it is imperative in training to use a variety of instructors within the organisation to keep the training fresh. Using trainers outside the organisation (outsourcing) provides a unique view on the subject.

The other measure of stimulating a training program is to intermingle personnel from all departments into the training session. All staff should be eligible for training and training should be carried out all the time since this creates team work and capacity building hence increasing employee productivity.

There is need to carry out performance appraisals so as to ascertain the levels of employee competence and skills and at the same time assess the ability to deliver. This arrangement shall enable management to select those employees who are still lagging behind and then subject them to a form of training. This by all standards shall promote the spirit of hard work, commitment as well as steady progress at work (Harns, 2001).

The researcher agrees with Harn’s concerning the introduction of performance appraisals. But this should not only target the incompetent staff but rather be applied as a yard stick to identify staff with great potentials for promotion, reward among others.

2.5 The link between employee training and employee performance.
Training of employees is very important because it shapes the attitude and way of doing things in an organisation thereby enhancing employee performance. For instance, some skills are imparted in employees such as management skills, accounting, and computer skills which improve the ability and efficiency of employees hence reflecting good performance (Kayiwa, 2004).

On the other hand, in as much as training improves employee performance, it does not always do so. For instance some employees attain training and fail to contribute to organisational efficiency and at times their training may not be reflected in what they do. Or, they may leave the organisations for better paying ones, meaning that, temporarily at least, training would not have led to better performance.

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This section focuses at the methods or techniques to be used in data collection by the researcher in the field. It involves the research design, sample selection, area of study, research tools among others.

3.1 Research Design
The researcher shall use a case study design; and both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Description as well as analysis of observation shall be applied.

3.2 Area of Study
National Drug Authority is a regulatory organisation founded in 1994 under the Policy and Authority Act of parliament. This entrusts the National Drug Authority with the responsibility to oversee the regulatory and controlling body in Uganda with regard to pharmaceutical products.

The above mentioned organisation is located on Lumumba Avenue in Kampala where its headquarters are situated and has various branches across the country. The head office is under the overall leadership of the Executive Director who provides directions to the operations of the organisation.

3.3 Study Population
The study population shall include respondents in the categories of: top management such as the executive director, Human Resource Manager, Finance and Administration etc. trainers and lower level management staff such as secretaries, cashier, office manager, and security.

3.4 Sample Size and Selection
A sample size of 90 respondents from a population of 120 total NDA employees was selected as indicated in table 3.1 below basing on Krejcie and Morgan (1970) table of sample size selection. After using Krejcie and Morgan sample selection table, individual elements were selected using purposive, random sampling and simple random techniques.

A total of 90 questionnaires were distributed but only 75 were returned fully filled representing 83.3% response rate which is valid according to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) that a response rate of above 50% is in position to give valid and reliable data.

Table 1: Category of Respondents.

CATEGORY OF RESPONDENTS
TOTAL NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES
Selected sample returned questionnaires
Administrators
5
3
3
Managers
10
8
6
Field Officers
25
15
28
Finance
5
5
5
Secretary
5
4
5
Medical officers
30
26
10
Pharmacists
20
18
13
Support staff
20
16
5
TOTAL
120
90
75

3.5 Instruments / Tools Used
The researcher shall used different methods to collect data i.e. interviews, questionnaires, observation, and documentary analysis. This is mainly because only one method of data collection will not be adequate enough to provide up to date information.

3.5.1 Questionnaire
The researcher will use the questionnaire as a method of acquiring the facts. The questionnaire will be administered to respondents in lower management

3.5.2 Interviews
The researcher shall use interviewing which will employ verbal questioning as its principle technique, but it will be a guided interview. This shall be applied to top management respondents such as the Executive Director, Human Resource Manager, Finance Manager, Administration Manager, Communications Manager, and Compliance Manager.

3.5.3 Document Analysis
Relevant documents to the study will be consulted from Nkumba University, National Drug Authority, and the internet as well as public libraries to beef up the research findings.

3.6 Data Processing and Analysis
Data processing and analysis shall be undertaken for purposes of realising accuracy, uniformity and comprehensiveness. The researcher shall take up the task of collecting varying data from various categories of people, compile it thereafter. Data processing shall include: editing, coding, and tabulation.

3.6.1. Coding
In the coding of data, a kind of figurative representation of the data shall be made with a view of building a pattern of relevancy. This shall be done through categorising answers to specific questions n regard to the matter so as to enable the overall data to suit the researcher.

3.6.2 Editing
This will involve cross-checking the filed-out questionnaire to ensure consistency and completion and editing information by discarding what the researcher feels is not relevant information for the study.

3.6.3 Tabulation
This will mean determining the frequency of the respondents for every question in the questionnaire. It will be manually done with the use of tally marks. For instance, if the response to the questions is ‘yes’ or ‘no’, tabulation involved will determine the total number of yes and no responses.

3.7 Problems Encountered
Limited time schedule
The time set to carry out the research is very short considering the various trends one is meant to undertake so as to compile data and then later present it. However, researcher is determined to use the available time given by re-scheduling her program and finding time to interact with respondents and adjusting accordingly.

Poor response from the respondents
The researcher is likely to face a low attitude from the respondents, low opinion, as well as intimidation which may hinder the smooth process of the research. However, this problem shall be addressed through convincing the respondents and assuring them that the information shall remain confidential at the same time build a close relationship with them.

CHAPTER FOUR
Presentation of Findings and Interpretations

4.0 Introduction.
This chapter presents the findings on the analysis of the contribution of training to employee performance, a case study of the National Drug Authority. The findings below are greatly guided by the operational objectives given at the beginning of this study.

A total of 90 questionnaires were distributed but only 75 were returned fully filled representing 83.3% response rate which is valid according to Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) that a response rate of above 50% is in position to give valid and reliable data. The employees that participated in study included top management, trainers, and lower management. These were chosen through a purposive non-random sampling technique and were interviewed through close-ended questionnaires.

4.1 Social Economic background of respondents.
The study investigated the social economic background of respondents with a view of establishing their position. This included, age bracket, job designation, level of education and period of service.

4.1.1 Age distribution of the respondents.
The study discovered that 7 (9.3%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-29 years, while the largest number of respondents; 39 (52%) were in the age bracket of 30-39 years. The study also found out that those between 40-49 years were 20 (27%) while those 50 and above were 9 (12%). It was also observed that the youthful age of 20-29 (9.3%) was less active in terms of frequency compared to the other advancing age groups.
Table 2: Age distribution of respondents.
Age
Frequency
Percentage (%)
20-29 years
7
9.3
30-39 years
39
52
40-49 years
20
26.7
50 and above
9
12
TOTAL
75
100
Source: field study
4.1.2 Sex distribution of the respondents The researcher sampled 45 male and 30 female respondents

Table 3: Sex distribution of respondents

SEX
FREQUENCY
%
Male
45
60
Female
30
40
TOTAL
75
100
Source: field study

It was evinced from the study carried out that training benefited both male and female. The study interviewed 45 (60%) male respondents and 30 (40%) female respondents as shown in the table above.

4.1.3 Job designation of respondents.
The research discovered that the respondents had different job designations as shown in the table below.

Table 4: Job designations of the respondents.
Job Designation
Frequency
(%)
Administrators
3
4
Managers
6
8
Field officer
28
37.3
Finance
5
6.7
Secretary
5
6.7
Medical officer
10
13.3
Pharmacist
13
17.3
Support Staff
5
6.7
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field notes

The research discovered that 3 (4%) was the least percentage and these were administrators, while field officers were the most in terms of numbers at 28 (37.3%). Finance officers were 5 (6.7%), managers were 6 (8%) while secretaries were 5 (6.7%). The research also discovered that medical officers were 10 (13.3%); pharmacists were 13 (17.3%) while support staff were 5 (6.7%).

4.1.4 Level of education of respondents.
Table 5: Education level of the respondents
Level of education
Frequency
(%)
Master’s degree
5
6.7
Bachelor’s degree
37
49.3
Diploma
19
25.3
Senior six
4
5.3
Other (specify)
10
13.3
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field notes

The respondents were of different education levels and the research discovered that 4 (5.3%) of the respondents had finished senior six while 19(25.3%) has completed diplomas. 37(49.3%) of the respondents had completed degrees, 5 (6.7%) has masters degrees while 10(13.3%) were in the category of “others”.

The study also discovered that “others” 10(13.3%) had done some refresher courses in management, finance, customer care etc. In light of the above, it was evidenced that the majority of respondents were educated enough and therefore were in position to give the necessary information with regard to the research study.

4.1.5 Period of service (unrealistic)
The study was able to discover the respondents’ period of service at the National Drug Authority. This was in the range of 1-5 years, 6-10 years, 11-15 years, and those who have served for over 15 years. This is illustrated in table (6) below.

Table 6: Period of service of the respondents

Period of service
Frequency
(%)
1-5 years
15
20
6-10 years
28
37.3
11-15 years
24
32
Above 15 years
8
10.7
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field notes

The research found out that the respondents who had served between 1-5 years were 15(20%), those who had served for 6-10 years were 28(37.3%), those who had served for 11-15 years were 24(32%), and those who had been in service for over 15 years were 8(10.7%). The study therefore observed that the majority of the respondents had enough working experience as this was reflected in their period of service.

4.2 Contribution of training to employee performance.
4.2.1 Forms of training carried out at the National Drug Authority.
The study made effort to find out the forms of training carried out at the National Drug Authority. The forms of training revealed by the respondents included; on-the-job, off-the-job, external, and other forms of training as shown in the table below.

Table 7 Forms of training carried out at the National Drug Authority

Forms of training
Frequency
(%)
On-the-job
40
53.4
Off-the-job
18
24
External training
10
13.3
Other (specify)
7
9.3
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field study

The study discovered from 40 (53.4%) of the respondents that on-job-training was carried out while 18(24%) of the respondents revealed off-the-job training, while 10 (13.3%) stated external training, and 7(9.3%) revealed “other”. On-the-job training(s) included computer skills, management skills, and customer care skills, while off-the-job included; training in pharmacy operations, stores management, accounting and financial management, packaging and branding of products. External training basically involved research studies.

4.2.2 Objectives/ reasons for training
The research identified objectives/reasons for training and these included; to improve employee performance, to enhance individual, team and corporate performance, offering learning and development opportunities, improved operational flexibility and managing change. This is illustrated in table (8) below

Table 8 demonstrates the objectives/reasons for training.

Objectives/reasons for training
Frequency
(%)
Improve employee performance
16
21.3
Enhance individual, team, and corporate performance
19
25.3
Offering learning and development opportunities
8
10.7
Improved operational flexibility
22
29.4
Managing change
10
13.3
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field study.

The study found out from 16(21.3%) of the respondents that training improves employee performance by producing the desired results on the job. 19(25.3%) stated that training enhances individual, team, and corporate performance in terms of output, quality, speed, and overall productivity while 8(10.7%) revealed that training offers employee learning and development opportunities thereby increasing their levels of competence and skills. 22(29.4%) of the respondents stated improved operational flexibility as the reason for training, while 10(13.3%) revealed that training of employees helps to manage change by increasing understanding for the reasons for change, and providing people with the knowledge and skills they need to adjust to situations.

4.2.3 Training incentives offered at the National Drug Authority.
The study wanted to know what training incentives are offered at the National Drug Authority; and among this included good salary, good working conditions, job security, good management, and opportunity for advancement as explained in table 9 below

Table 9 shows the training incentives offered at the National Drug Authority.

Training incentives offered at the National Drug Authority
Frequency
(%)
Good salaries
17
23
Good working conditions
26
34
Job security
8
11
Good management
14
19
Opportunity for advancement
10
13
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field study

The research discovered from 17(23%) of the respondents that good salary that good salary provision was a training incentive offered at the National Drug Authority, 26(34%) revealed good working conditions such as employee relations, tolerance and cooperation while 8(11%) stated job security as an incentive and 14(19%) revealed good management. 10(13.3%) of the respondents stated opportunity for advancement.

4.3 Problems faced in training.
The study discovered some of the problems faced in training of employees at the National Drug Authority and these were high costs incurred, lack of competent trainers, shifting learning into practice, low attitude from trainers and failure to equip employees with relevant training. Table 10 illustrates it further.

Table 10 illustrates the problems faced in training

Problems faced in training
Frequency
(%)
High costs incurred
20
26.7
Lack of competent trainers
6
8
Shifting learning into practice
23
30.7
Low attitude from trainees
10
13.3
Failure to equip employees with relevant training
16
21.3
TOTAL
75
100

The study discovered from 20(26.7%) of the respondents that training was a costly venture in terms of meeting the training equipment and paying trainers, while 6(8%) revealed lack of competent trainers to carry out training effectively and 23(30.7%) stated the problem of shifting learning into practice mainly with external training. It was also revealed by 10(13.3%) that low attitude from trainees was yet another problem and this was escalated by the slow the slow pace of some trainees with regard to grasping training lessons or practical sessions while 16(21.3%) stated failure to equip employees with relevant training.

4.4 Measures to improve training of employees
The study found out measures to improve the training of employees and these included evaluation of training, designing proper training schedules, proper analysis of training needs, team building and carrying out detailed performance appraisals. This is demonstrated in table 11 below.

Table 11 shows the measures to improve training of employees.
Suggested measures to improve training of employees
Frequency
(%)
Evaluation of training
18
24
Designing proper training schedules
17
22.7
Proper analysis of training needs
22
29.3
Team building
10
13.3
Carrying out detailed performance appraisals
8
10.7
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field study
The study discovered from 18(24%)of the respondents that evaluation of training would be a measure to improve training of employees in order to assess or ascertain its effectiveness in producing the desired learning outcomes specified, 17(22.7%) revealed designing proper training schedules that incorporate the interests and demands of the trainees while 22(29.3%) stated proper analysis of training needs in order to identify the knowledge and skills people must poses so as to perform effectively. 10(13.3%) identified team building as a measure to improve training of employees while 8 (10.7%) stated the need to carry out detailed performance appraisals so as to ascertain the levels of employee competence and skills.

4.5 is there a link between employee training and employee performance?
The study found out from 65 respondents that there was a link between employee training and employee performance while 10 stated that there was no link.

Table 12 below shows the opinion of the respondents with regards to the link between employee training and employee performance

Link between employee training and employee performance
Frequency
(%)
Yes
65
86.7%
No
10
13.3
TOTAL
75
100
Source: Field study

The study discovered from 65(86.7%) of the respondents that there was a link between employee training and employee performance since training of employees shapes the attitude and way of doing things in an organisation thereby enhancing employee performance. The respondents in support revealed that the skills are imparted in employees such as management skills, computer knowledge, customer care which harness their ability and efficiency.

On the other hand, 10(13.3%) did not see any link between employee performance since some employees attain training and fail to use these skills to add value to the organisational efficiency while others may not reflect the training obtained in what they do, others choose to leave the organisation in order to target other institutions where they pay better hence manifesting why there is no link between employee training and performance.

4.6 The study discovered from various respondents what was to be done in order to improve the general performance of staff at the National Drug Authority.
It was revealed by the majority of the respondents that the good working environment that allows close employee relations, relatively attractive pay and team work should be considered or ear marked if performance of staff at the National Drug Authority is to be improved.

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 INTRODUCTION
This chapter summarises the important findings of the study. The major concern is on the major factors upon which data was presented in the previous chapter. It is on the major sub sections in chapter four (4) that the summary and vital conclusions have been drawn together with the recommendations.

5.2 SUMMARY OF MAJOR FINDINGS.
The study set out to analyse the contribution of training to employee performance; a case study of the National Drug Authority (NDA). It specifically investigated the forms and types of training, the objectives and reasons for training, problems faced in training and suggested measures that can improve the training of employees; and so their performance.

National Drug Authority was purposefully selected. The research applied random sampling techniques to select a sample of respondents. Data was obtained using questionnaires and was administered to 75 respondents from the NDA. A total of 6 key informant provided data for policy recommendations and conclusions. The categories of respondents included; top management, trainers, and lower management.

The study found out that training improves employee performance by producing the desired results on the job, training also enhances individual, team, and corporate performance in terms of output, quality, speed, and overall productivity while others revealed that it offers employees learning and development opportunities thereby increasing their levels of competence and skills.

The study came up with a number of recommendations to improve NDA’s performance and these included:- the need to design proper training schedules that incorporate the demands of the trainees.

The research also recommended the need to carry out performance appraisals so as to ascertain the levels of employee competence and skills and at the same time assess the ability to deliver. This assessment shall enable management to select those employees who are still lagging behind and then subject them to a form of training.

5.3 CONCLUSION
Training was the main focus in the study because it is a very important tool in Management, if employees and institutions are to realise their ultimate goals.

It is important to note that employees vary in the degree to which they are willing to dispense their efforts towards the achievement of organisational goals.

The researcher’s view is that the differences in performance among employees reflect differences in their degree of training.

Training of employees is very vital in terms of adding value to the quality of output in employee service delivery.

The practice in National Drug Authority is that all staff undergoes training. There has been a commendable job achieved by the organisation’s management in a bid to upgrade the level of competence and skills through training programs.

However, this training does not always lead to better performance due to a number of factors such as; inadequate training facilities, low morale on the side of trainers, poor selection of staff meant for training and uncoordinated training schedules. 5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS
The research recommends the evaluation of training in order to assess or ascertain its effectiveness in producing the learning outcomes specified when the training intervention was planned, and to indicate where improvements or changes are to be made to ensure smooth training and accuracy.

In order to improve the levels of training of the employees, the National Drug Authority should design proper training schedules that incorporate the interests and demands of the trainees. With such an arrangement in place, employees on training will be able to respond positively to the call for training and also keep time as to accomplish the day-to-day training sessions.

It is important to note that employees vary in the degree to which they are willing to dispense their efforts towards the achievement of organisational goals. The research observes that the differences in performance among employees reflect the differences in their degree of training. The business case for learning and training should demonstrate how learning, training, and development programs will meet business needs.

The study also recommends the intermingling of personnel from all departments into the training session. All staff should be eligible for training and training should be carried out all the time since this creates teamwork and capacity hence increasing employee productivity.

There is need to involve staff in reviewing performance and identifying training needs so as to select the training of relevant staff needs.

The research recommends for the need to carry out performance appraisals so as to ascertain the levels of employee competence and skills and at the same time assess the ability to deliver. This arrangement shall enable management to select those employees who are still lagging behind and then subject them to a form of training. This by all standards shall promote the spirit of hard work, commitment as well as steady progress at work.

Proper training is training that is purposefully designed, planned, and executed to meet or address defined needs. It is provided by managers who know how to train, and the effect of training is carefully evaluated. A well designed and implemented training program should enhance employee performance and excellence by producing the desired results on the job in a bid to address the bottlenecks.

The research recommends for training needs analysis; this is a very vital strategy in management since it helps to identify the knowledge and skills people must possess in order to perform effectively on the job and prescribes the appropriate interventions that can narrow this gap.
REFERENCES

Armstrong M. (1999) Human Resource Management, 2nd Edition, West Ham: Prentice Hall.

Bakibinga R. (2006) Challenges in Organisations, Case Study, Uganda Medical Stores, Entebbe.

Barlet F (1998) Management Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition, Naple: Inter-Com.

Baryomunsi S (2004) Measures to Improve Training in Organisations, Publication Report, presented on April 17th 2004, Labour Conference at the Sheraton Ball Room.

Bright K (1997) Corporate Management, 2nd Edition, Karen: Mc-Graw-Publishing Company.

Caroline M (2006) Employee Productivity vs. Training, publication presented to the Department of Human Resource, Nkozi University.

Garvin Jones (2001) Management, 2nd Edition, Michigan, Publishing Centre, United Kingdom.

Harns B (2001) Employee Relations and Management Practice, 2nd Edition, published by Chicago Printery Department.

Mathew Kaleb (2003) Training Assessment Review Report, Vol 43, Journal. Mbonye Christine (2002) Training, a Management Tool to Organisational Development, 2nd Edition, Fountain Publishers, Kampala.

Michael Brown (2005) Organisational Behaviour 4th Edition, (Chicago), University of Chicago Publishing Centre.

Morgan C (2006) Training and Performance, (Texas), 3rd Edition Inter-com publishers.
National Drug Authority, Information Booklet, (2006).

Nickson B. (2007) Organisational Management, 3rd Edition, (Boston), Prentice Hall Publishers.

Sekamwa J (1997) Corporate Performance Levels (measurement of productivity) Paper, presented in the Labour Re-union Conference, held on April 12, 1994 at Hotel Africana.

Steven Mills (2004) Fundamental Roles of Training in Organisational Success, published report, Geneva-Conference of Business Partners and Development Summit.

The Monitor Newspaper, March 15, 2007.

Zupra Akello (2005) Evaluation Report; Staff Performance and Conditions Prevailing.

APPENDICES
Appendix I QUESTIONNAIRE: (Please tick the appropriate option)

SECTION A:

1. What is your sex? Male Female

2. Age bracket

20-29
30-39
40-49
50 +

3. What is your current job designation?
Administrator
Manager
Field officer
Finance
Secretary
Medical officer
Pharmacist
Support staff

4. Level of education

Senior 6
Diploma
Degree
Masters
Other (specify)

5. Period of service

1-5 years
6-10 years
11-15 years
Above 15 years

SECTION B:

6. What are the forms of training carried out at the NDA

on-the job off-the job external training other (specify)

7. What are the objectives / reasons for training?

To improve employee performance
Enhance individual, team and corporate performance
Offering learning and development opportunities
Improved operational flexibility
Managing change

8. What training incentives are offered at NDA?

Good salary
Good working conditions
Job security
Good management
Opportunity for advancement

9. What are some of the problems faced in training?

High costs incurred
Lack of competent trainers
Shifting learning into practice
Low attitude from trainees
Failure to equip employees with relevant training.

10. What measures would you suggest to improve the training of employees?

Evaluation of training
Designing proper training schedules
Proper analysis of training needs
Team building
Carrying out detailed performance appraisals

11. From your experience, is there a link between “employee training” and “employee performance”?

Yes No Don’t know

12. Please elaborate on your answer.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

13. In your own words, what should be done to improve the general performance of staff at the NDA?
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
..........................................................................................................................................................

Thank you and above all I would like to assure you that I am not here to judge you but to learn from you.

Appendix II Interview Guide:

1. What are the forms of training carried out at the NDA?

2. What are the objectives / reasons for training?

3. What training incentives are offered at NDA?

4. What are some of the problems faced in training?

5. What measures would you suggest to improve the training of employees?

6. From your experience, is there a link between “employee training” and “employee performance”? (Please elaborate on your answer).

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

7. In your own words, what should be done to improve the general performance of staff at the NDA?

………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

References: Armstrong M. (1999) Human Resource Management, 2nd Edition, West Ham: Prentice Hall. Bakibinga R. (2006) Challenges in Organisations, Case Study, Uganda Medical Stores, Entebbe. Barlet F (1998) Management Principles and Practices, 2nd Edition, Naple: Inter-Com. Baryomunsi S (2004) Measures to Improve Training in Organisations, Publication Report, presented on April 17th 2004, Labour Conference at the Sheraton Ball Room. Bright K (1997) Corporate Management, 2nd Edition, Karen: Mc-Graw-Publishing Company. Caroline M (2006) Employee Productivity vs. Training, publication presented to the Department of Human Resource, Nkozi University. Garvin Jones (2001) Management, 2nd Edition, Michigan, Publishing Centre, United Kingdom. Harns B (2001) Employee Relations and Management Practice, 2nd Edition, published by Chicago Printery Department. Mathew Kaleb (2003) Training Assessment Review Report, Vol 43, Journal. Mbonye Christine (2002) Training, a Management Tool to Organisational Development, 2nd Edition, Fountain Publishers, Kampala. Michael Brown (2005) Organisational Behaviour 4th Edition, (Chicago), University of Chicago Publishing Centre. Morgan C (2006) Training and Performance, (Texas), 3rd Edition Inter-com publishers. National Drug Authority, Information Booklet, (2006). Nickson B. (2007) Organisational Management, 3rd Edition, (Boston), Prentice Hall Publishers. Sekamwa J (1997) Corporate Performance Levels (measurement of productivity) Paper, presented in the Labour Re-union Conference, held on April 12, 1994 at Hotel Africana. Steven Mills (2004) Fundamental Roles of Training in Organisational Success, published report, Geneva-Conference of Business Partners and Development Summit. The Monitor Newspaper, March 15, 2007. Zupra Akello (2005) Evaluation Report; Staff Performance and Conditions Prevailing.

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