PSYA4 : Schizophrenia :Outline and Evaluation points for use with each section 1. Clinical characteristics- this part only requires you to know symptoms(so no evaluation) You need to know:
Schizophrenia is a mental disorder characterised by a split between thinking and emotion. How long symptoms need to last for someone to be diagnosed(the DSM and ICD have different times) How many positive and negative symptoms someone needs to be diagnosed and a few examples of each Two sub-types of Schizophrenia and 3-4 symptoms of each subtype. Exam questions: Likely to be 5 marks.
1) Outline Clinical Characteristics of Schizophrenia (5 marks). 2) Describe how somebody a psychiatrist would diagnose someone with schizophrenia (4 marks) 3) Outline two sub-types of schizophrenia.(5 marks)
2. Issues of classification and diagnosis: How reliable and how valid the ways of diagnosing schizophrenia are. There are many issues. In case you get a 24 mark essay you need to know 6 in detail. Choose from: Using two manuals (DSM and ICD)with different criteria is not valid. Sub-types-ICD and DSM have different sub-types.
Inter-rater reliability: If a tool is reliable specialists should agree using the same tool on one patients diagnosis. Similarity to other disorders
The classification system is valid its people using them that are not using them correctly.
A/A*: Does Schizophrenia actually exist?
Exam questions: These could range from 9/10 marks to 24 marks. 1) Explain issues associated with the classification and/or diagnosis of Schizophrenia (10 marks)(use 3 issues) 2) Discuss the validity and Reliability of diagnosis and classification of Schizophrenia( 24 marks)(8 marks A01 AND 16 A02)NB discuss= outline and evaluate! Here it asks for reliability and validity-don’t panic at this as all the issues we have covered link to reliability and validity. Refer to reliability of classification systems, inter-rater reliability of diagnosis, validity of diagnosis and symptom overlap, issue of labelling and discrimination (and make sure you include twice as much evaluation) 3) Some people argue that many people are misdiagnosed with schizophrenia. Using your knowledge of the diagnosis and classification of Schizophrenia discuss this statement. (24 marks)(8 A01 and 16 A02) Again don’t panic it is asking you to do the same as 1 and 2. The trick here is to occasionally refer back to the statement that some people are misdiagnosed. 4) Discuss the issues which apply to diagnosing Schizophrenia (5 marks) this is 5 A02 marks. It is similar to q1 but there are only 5 marks available for it .Therefore, you cannot cover it in the same detail as you would for 10 marks. Again it says issues so you must cover 2.Practice writing an answer for this. It could just be a summary of what you have said for 10 marks.
3. Biological explanations of Schizophrenia:
Genetics: This is the main one and needs to be learnt in detail Biochemistry(dopamine hypothesis)
Cause and effect- did genes/dopamine cause schizophrenia or was it the psychoactive drugs which caused the changes in dopamine or the brain structure. Concordance rates in mz twins are not 100% which means it is not genes alone-suggest diathesis stress model would take into account genes and environment. Sample sizes of twin studies: not many to use
Same environment in womb-even adoption studies cannot take away fact twins share the same environment before separation. Concordance rates are not always calculated the same way.
A03- Nature-nurture debate Cultural bias determinism reductionism
A/A* :Aietology Fallacy-Using treatment to state your theory of the cause is correct(in case of dopamine hypothesis)
Two syndrome hypothesis.
Exam questions- could range upto 24 marks
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