In the model systems (solutions and paper), which samples browned the fastest and why? Which samples did not go brown and why? Why did the paper brown so rapidly compared to the solutions. What caused any significant differences between the model and real systems? In particular are there other ingredients in the cookie that could take part in the reactions or is the heating different in some way?
Sample A and sample B are overlap after fry the paper. Sample B is more browning compare with sample A. Sample A and sample C are not overlap after fry the paper. Sample A is more browning compare with sampleC. Sample A and sample D are notoverlap after fry the paper. Sample A is more browning compare withsample D
The first scientific account of non-enzymatic reactions involving the browning of sugar was published by the French biochemist Louis Camille Maillard in 1912. He reported that aqueous solutions of amino acids and glucose, or sugar, turned progressively yellow-brown when heated or stored under physiological conditions. This phenomenon, called protein glycation, involves the reaction of a sugar, such as glucose or fructose, with the amino group of proteins to form what is known as a Schiff base. While Maillard’s prediction that this reaction occurs in the human body, particularly in diabetic patients, went unnoticed for the next 50 years, the Maillard reaction became of major interest to researchers in food science and technology. Since the time our ancestors controlled fire, the value of cooking has been recognized for improving the flavor and digestibility of food. It also became apparent that cooked food could be stored longer than raw food. Over time, cooking practices have developed into an art. Food manufacturers have long realized that solutions of amino acids and sugar should not be heated or mixed together. Yet, thermal processes are used in the food industry to improve texture, color, and flavor, and to sterilize and...
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