Discuss X.25 and Frame Relay

Topics: Internet, Packet switching, Internet Protocol Pages: 12 (3344 words) Published: December 4, 2013

ARPA, Internet and Internet2

CIS532
Strayer University
12/1/2013

Contents

Abstract……………………………………………………………………………3 What is the Internet………………………………………………………………4 Computer Networking and Evolution of the Internet……………………..........4 Packet Switching Technology…………………………………………………….5 X.25 Technology………………………………………………………..................6 Frame Relay Protocol…………………………………………………………….6 ATM Protocol……………………………………………………………………..7 First Computer Network…………………………………………………………9 Communication Protocols……………………………………………………….10 TCP/IP……………………………………………………………………………11 LAN……………………………………………………………………………….12 Internet2………………………………………………………………………….14 References ………………………………………………………………………..16

ABSTRACT
Most of the people that use Internet today are not aware that Internet was not developed by a single person or a single company; in fact even less people know that Internet evolved from many technologies created by ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency). Internet is a computer network made of many computer networks. Computer networking is a broad and complex field that does not have one single point of origin. It is the results of continuous evolution in computer technology. One of the first computer networks was ARPANET. US Government and its scientist like J.R.C. Licklider, Lawrence Roberts, Bob Kahn and Vint Ceft had vision to develop US into world’s technology leader. Their ideas with help of many organizations and individuals became reality and thank to them we are able to use today technology know as Internet. In last decade and half many universities, private companies and the U.S. government have been working together on technology known as Internet2 or second generation Internet that provides faster and higher capacity network that is primarily used for research.

What is the Internet?
If you are information technology professional, you surely have been asked by non-technical person about the Internet. What is the Internet? How does it work? How do you access it?
If you just say that the Internet is a worldwide collection of computer networks that exchange data using a common software standard will mean nothing to a non-technical person.
To answer these questions and similar once, you must first explain that the Internet was not invented by a single person or a single company, and the evolution of the Internet was not a result of the some overnight project, in fact it took at least three decades for all technologies to evolve into Internet. In fact the internet was result of the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA or ARPA).

Computer Networking and Evolution of the Internet

Today’s Internet is result of USA determination to be a world leader in technology which was prompted after USSR lunched first artificial earth satellite in 1957.
First step toward today’s Internet was done by Department of Defense which resulted in creation of ARPA (Advanced Project Research Agency) and appointment of J.C.R Licklider, as first head of this organization. J.C.R Licklider, was the first one to write about idea to have computers interconnected that will allow users to access data and programs from any site.

The first computers that were built in the 1950 were known as mainframes and they were used only by Government or some University. These mainframes computers were serving dumb terminals and the only way to connect these dumb terminals with mainframe was through serial connection running on RS-232 interface, but there were also terminals that were not near mainframes computer and the only way to connect them was through Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).

In October of 1965, Lawarence Roberts successfully connected TX-2 computer at MIT in Massachusetts to a Q-32 computer in California via direct phone line. From this test and similar tests ARPA learned that existing circuit-switch technology has limitation (i.e....

References: Cutright, P., & Girrard, K. (1996). Frame Relay. What does it mean? Online 20 (3), 68. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Dunogue, J. (1995). From X.25 to ATM: The evolution of data networks. Telecom Asia, 6 (3), 28. Retrieved from Academic Search Premier database.
Gromov, G. (2009). Roads and Crossroads of Internet History. Retrieved from http://www.netvalley.com/cgi-bin/intval/net_history.pl
Internet2
Oppenheimer, P. (2001). Top-Down Network Design, Indianapolis, IN: Cisco Press

Rogers, S. (1999). Network+ Certification Study Guide, Berkeley, California: McGraw-Hill
Stallings, W
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