disaster risk reduction

Topics: Emergency management, Pakistan, Hazard Pages: 30 (8821 words) Published: March 26, 2014
Session M1.1:
Disaster Risk Management Terms and Concepts
Note: For further detail definitions and concepts clarity, please visit United Nation International Strategy (UNISDR) website http://www.unisdr.org/eng/terminology/terminology-2009-eng.html Crisis

A crisis is any event that is, or is expected to lead to, an unstable and dangerous situation affecting an individual, group, community, or whole society. Management often requires decisions to be made within a short timeframe & often an event has already taken place. Generally, impact of a crisis situation is localized requiring immediate attention. Crisis situation may lead to a disaster if not managed appropriately.

Hazard
A dangerous phenomenon, substance, human activity or condition that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Hazard can be single, sequential or combined in their origin and effects. Each hazard is characterized by its location, intensity, frequency and probability. Hazards have following two types:- Types of Hazards

i.Natural:Natural process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. ii.Human-induced:Conditions that may have disastrous consequences for a society. These are associated with industries or energy generation facilities and include explosions, leakage of toxic waste, pollution, dam failures. Complex Emergency is included in this category. Categorization of Natural Hazards

i.Geological: Geological process or phenomenon that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. ii.Socio-natural: The phenomenon of increased occurrence of certain geophysical and hydrometeorological hazard events, such as landslides, flooding, land subsidence and drought, that arise from the interaction of natural hazards with overexploited or degraded land and environmental resources. Socio-natural hazards can be reduced and avoided through wise management of land and environmental resources. iii.Hydrometeorological:Process or phenomenon of atmospheric, hydrological or oceanographic nature that may cause loss of life, injury or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. iv.Biological:Process or phenomenon of organic origin or conveyed by biological vectors, including exposure to pathogenic micro-organisms, toxins and bioactive substances that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage. Examples of biological hazards include outbreaks of epidemic diseases, plant or animal contagion, insect or other animal plagues and infestations. Categorization of Human-induced Hazards

i.Technological:A hazard originating from technological or industrial conditions, including accidents, dangerous procedures, infrastructure failures or specific human activities, that may cause loss of life, injury, illness or other health impacts, property damage, loss of livelihoods and services, social and economic disruption, or environmental damage ii.Complex Emergency

iii.Oil Spill
iv.Forest/Urban Fire
Hazard Assessment
The process of estimating, for defined areas, the probabilities of the occurrence of potentially damaging phenomena of given magnitude within a specified period of time. Hazard assessment involves analysis of formal and informal historical records and skilled interpretation of existing topographical, geological, hydrological and land-use maps. Vulnerability

The characteristics and circumstances of a community, system or asset that make it susceptible to the...
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