disaster management

Topics: Ottoman Empire, Istanbul, Ottoman Dynasty Pages: 13 (3432 words) Published: October 10, 2014
The Ottoman Empire was the one of the largest and longest lasting Empires in history. It was an empire inspired and sustained by Islam, and Islamic institutions. It replaced the Byzantine Empire as the major power in the Eastern Mediterranean. The Ottoman Empire reached its height under Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520-66), when it expanded to cover the Balkans and Hungary, and reached the gates of Vienna. The Empire began to decline after being defeated at the Battle of Lepanto (1571) and losing almost its entire Navy. It declined further during the next centuries, and was effectively finished off by the First World War and the Balkan Wars. One legacy of the Islamic Ottoman Empire is the robust secularism of modern Turkey. At its peak it included: Turkey, Egypt, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Macedonia, Hungary, Palestine, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and parts of Arabia, much of the coastal strip of North Africa Origin

After Baghdad fell to the Mongols, the Seljuks declared an independent Sultanate in east and central Asia Minor. In 1301, Uthman, an Uzbek of the Ottoman clan, overthrew the Seljuk aristocracy and proclaimed himself the Sultan of Asia Minor. There were many reasons why the Ottoman Empire was so successful: •Highly centralised

Power was always transferred to a single person, and not split between rival princes •The Ottoman Empire was successfully ruled by a single family for 7 centuries. •Religion was incorporated in the state structure, and the Sultan was regarded as "the protector of Islam". •State-run Judicial System, State-run education system

Ruthless in dealing with local leaders
Promotion to positions of power largely depended on merit •Created alliances across political and racial groups
United by Islamic ideology
United by Islamic warrior code with ideal of increasing Muslim territory through Jihad. •United by Islamic organizational and administrative structures •Highly pragmatic, taking the best ideas from other cultures and making them their own •Encouraged loyalty from other faith groups

Private power and wealth were controlled
Very strong militaryStrong slave-based army
Expert in developing gunpowder as a military tool
Military ethos pervaded whole administration

The Millet System
Non-Muslim communities were organized according to the millet system, which gave minority religious/ethnic/geographical communities a limited amount of power to regulate their own affairs - under the overall supremacy of the Ottoman administration. The first Orthodox Christian millet was established in 1454. This brought Orthodox Christians into a single community under the leadership of the Patriarch who had considerable authority given to him by the Sultan. Armenian Christian, Jewish and other millets followed in due course. Some millets paid tax to the state as Dhimmis, while others were exempted because they were seen to be performing services of value to the state. The devshirme system

Non-Muslims in parts of the empire had to hand over some of their children as a tax under the devshirme ('gathering') system introduced in the 14th century. Conquered Christian communities, especially in the Balkans, had to surrender twenty percent of their male children to the state. These children were converted to Islam and served as slaves. The devshirme played a key role in Mehmet's conquest of Constantinople, and from then on regularly held very senior posts in the imperial administration. The devshirme system continued until the end of the seventeenth century. Fratricide

Sultan Selim introduced the policy of fratricide (the murder of brothers). Under this system whenever a new Sultan ascended to the throne his brothers would be locked up. As soon as the Sultan had produced his first son the brothers (and their sons) would be killed. The new Sultan's sons would be then confined until their father's death and the whole system would...
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