Disaster Management

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Disasters have been an integral part of human history right from the dawn of civilization. In the early days, individuals and communities would lead the response to disasters. However, with the emergence of globalization, urbanization, large-scale migrations of human population, the nature of disasters has increased both in magnitude and complexity. The frequency of disaster may have remained unchanged, increasing population densities and urbanization has resulted in greater impact on human lives and property, thereby rise in vulnerabilities.

Disaster is "a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using its own resources." A disaster is the product of a hazard such as earthquake or flood with a vulnerable situation which might include communities, cities or villages. Without vulnerability or hazard there is no disaster. A disaster occurs when hazards and vulnerability meet.

Disaster Management

"Disaster Management" is a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for:
a) Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster;
b) Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences;
c) Capacity-building;
d) Preparedness to deal with any disaster;
e) Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster;
f) Assessing the severity or magnitude of effects of any disaster;
g) Evacuation, rescue and relief;
h) Rehabilitation and reconstruction

Phases in Disaster Management

a) Pre – Disaster Phase: Prevention, Mitigation and Preparedness.
b) Response Phase: Preparedness, Search, Rescue, Medical Aid, Assessment, Relief and Temporary Rehabilitation
c) Recovery Phase: Permanent Rehabilitation and Reconstruction.

Disaster Management Cycle

Disaster management can be

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