Topics: Autism, Mental retardation, Down syndrome Pages: 2 (1102 words) Published: November 1, 2014
Candace Calder
Grand Canyon University: SPE 226
October 20, 2014

As our understanding of learning, biology, and psychology progresses, our awareness increases of the prevalence and diversity of learning disabilities. Intellectual disabilities present unique challenges. Autism and spectrum disorders are only now being differentiated. Further, severe and multiple disability situations present their own opportunities and issues. It is only through understanding the innumerable challenges one can encounter that proper curricula can be developed and thereby enriching and improving the lives of the students. Intellectual Disabilities

Intellectual disability is defined by the American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities as being “…characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills…” (AAIDD, 2013). There are a myriad of causes associated with intellectual disabilities, however because this disability occurs during the developmental years focus is on the “prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal conditions” (GCU, 2014). These causes can include genetic factors, and behavioral factors, as well as maternal infections, and sociocultural influences (Hardman, Drew, Egan, 2014). This disability is diagnosed by having the child take an IQ test along with an adaptive behavior test. Children with intellectual disability will score below average on both the IQ and adaptive behavior test. This is because of a lack of understanding with problem solving, whether that be a math question or how to use their time. Students who have intellectual disability struggle with learning, memory insufficiency, being able to regulate their behavior, and an inability or limitation in adapting to their environment (Hardman, Drew, Egan, 2014). All of these impact their education, and how educators teach these students. Instruction for these...

References: AAIDD. (2013, ). Definition. Retrieved from American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities website: http://aaidd.org/intellectual-disability/definition#.VE2gOIcYE20
GCU. (2014).  SPE 226: Educating the Exceptional Learner.  Lecture 4.
Hardman, M. L., Drew, C. J., & Egan, M. W. (2014). Human exceptionality: School, community, and family. Belmont California: Cengage Learning.
Office Of Scientific And Health Reports, National Institute Of Neurological Disorders And Stroke, & National Institutes Of Health. (1996, August). Autism fact sheet- guide for parents of autistic children. Retrieved from Child Development Institute website: http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-psychology/autism-aspergers/autism_fact_sheet/
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