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Digestive System Study Guide

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Digestive System Study Guide
Digestive System Study Guide
1. Define the term digestion and explain its significance. The chemical and mechanical process of breaking down food and its absorption. Its essential to maintaining life.
2. Distinguish between mechanical digestion and chemical digestion. Chemical digestion is where complex food molecules are broken down to the basic building blocks by enzymes. Mechanical digestion is chewing, churning and segmentation.
3. Discuss the five digestive processes that overview the many functions of the digestive system.
4. Distinguish between the alimentary canal and digestive accessory organs. Alimentary canal (GI tract) is the muscular tube that winds through the body. Accessory organs are teeth, tongue, gallbladder, salivary glands, liver, spleen
5. Name two synonyms for the alimentary canal. Gastrointestinal Tract (GI) or GUT
6. List the organs that compose the alimentary canal and identify each on a diagram. Alimentary canal consists of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine.
7. List the digestive accessory organs and identify each on a diagram. Teeth, tongue, gallbladder, and a number of large digestive glands - the salivary glands, liver and pancreas
8. Name the four layers that compose the wall of the alimentary canal from innermost (lining lumen) to outermost. Mucosa, Submucosa, muscularis externa and serosa
9. Compare and contrast the four layers of the alimentary canal wall (named above) in terms of their structure, function, and any distinguishing features. Mucosa is moist epithelial that secretes mucus, digestive enzymes and hormones. The submucosa is moderately dense connective tissue containing blood vessels and nerve fibers. The muscularis externa is responsible for segmentation and peristalsis. Is made of smooth muscle cells. Sphincters form that act as valves to prevent backflow and control food passage from one organ to the next. Serosa is the protective outermost layer
10. Name the layer of the

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