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Differentiate Instruction

By lewisjasmine8 Feb 24, 2014 1626 Words
SPED 201
Differentiated Instruction

Jasmine Lewis
SPED 201

Classrooms today are more diverse than ever. According to New York Times American schools have increased by more than over 5 million since the 1990s. This increase has been fueled by the immigration of Hispanics and Asians (NY Times). But differences in ethnicity are not the only reasons for diverse classrooms. Special needs students also contribute to diversity in our education school system. It is the responsibility of the teacher to make sure that their instruction caters to the needs of all their students. A way to accomplish this is through differentiated instruction. Differentiated instruction is identified as a way to recognize students’ varying backgrounds knowledge, readiness, language, preferences in learning and interests; and to react responsively. It is the ability to carry out a lesson in a way the teacher can teach students with different learning abilities in the same classroom. No two children enter the classroom with the same learning styles or the same previous learned knowledge. Learning styles, language proficiency, background knowledge, and readiness to learn are different in each child and play a role in differentiated instruction. In order to properly carry out differentiated instruction the teacher must first educate himself or herself on the learning styles. There are seven learning styles; visual (spatial), aural (auditory-musical), verbal (linguistic), physical (kinesthetic), logical (mathematical), social (interpersonal), and solitary (intrapersonal). Learning styles not only affect how someone interprets information but also how they recall said information. Learning styles uses different parts of the brain. Visual learning is controlled by the occipital lobes, which are located at the back of the brain. Aural learning is controlled by the temporal lobes. Verbal learning is control by the temporal and frontal lobes. Physical learning is controlled by the cerebellum and motor cortex, which are located at the back of the frontal lobe. Logical managed by the left side of the parietal lobes. Social learning is influenced by the limbic system but is managed by the frontal and temporal lobes. Lastly solitary learning is control by the frontal and parietal lobes also and as well limbic system. The teacher needs to be well educated on these learning styles so that the can incorporate them in their lesson plans and classroom activities. A child with special needs may not always have to be in a special environment for learning, their placement may require a regular classroom instruction. Their IEP goal may call for inclusive education. Inclusion education means educating students with any type of disabilities, learning or physical, in a general education classroom. Just because the have a disability some may automatically that they are placed in a special education classroom but that may not always help them. They may not receive the education the need. Special needs students have different services that cater to their instruction. General education with consultation is set up so that the student receives instruction in general education with an ongoing consultation from a special education teacher. Another program is general education classroom with supplementary instruction and service which means that the student receives a prescribed program under the direction of the general education classroom teacher and also receives instruction and related services within the general education classroom from the special education and/or a paraeducator. The last program is the resource room. In this setting the child is in a general classroom for majority of the day and then goes to a special education resource room for specialized instruction. The reason for inclusion education is so that the student can learn social skills as well as also being educated. Their disability may hinder the natural ability to communicate with peers and adults, with them being in a general class the get to interact with children who are not special needs and the gain some form of social skills to use in the real world. A differentiated lesson should include things such as a visual component, collaborative activities, peer coaching, a multi-sensory approach to presenting information and differentiated assessment based on strengths. A visual component can be such things like digitals cameras and online image searches. This should be very helpful to students with reading disabilities because even though they cannot read the word the will know the name of the object and related back to that word. For example, the word milk, even though the child may not know how to spell the word or pronounce it the will know the cartoon and as the teacher helps them the pronunciation of the word will come because they know what the object is. Peer coaching can build some form of trust with in the classroom. Many children may be self-reluctant because they feel as though they cannot trust people but certain activities such as passing a ball back and forth could build trust. With having many children with different learning abilities all in one classroom the, teacher cannot sit down with each child individual and make sure they understand each lesson taught. The teacher would have to incorporate certain things in their lesson to enhance their perception. One way to do this is to split the children into groups and provide group lessons. Children feed off one another and often challenge each other. Teacher can divide the children up by there learn abilities so that are around other that understand like them. Once they complete the assignment given to them they can share as a class so that they can see how their fellow classmates who understand thing differently than them and how they came to the same solution for a problem but in different ways. Many teachers depend to solely on activities printed on paper to teach their children. Children with special needs may be talented in unexpected areas. They may be very artistic, creative with building and technology savvy. The more a teacher can incorporate sensory avenues while introducing new information, the more it is likely the student will retain it. For example when counting, a teacher can use coins or blocks. When learning about different geographical places, the teacher can introduce foods or artifacts from that specific place. Classroom instruction should not always be learned sitting down for the entire class period because children tend to loose focus. When learning some special need children cannot sit for long periods of times. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a problem of not being able to focus, being overactive and not being able control behavior. With this disorder it will be hard for a child to sit for a long time and try to understand the lesson that the teacher may have set out. Some things the teacher can do to get around this issue is when teaching math they can add and subtract student from groups and have another student count to see how man there are.

Even though the lessons have to be taught to the students, if the child finds the lesson uninteresting they may check out mentally and cause a disruption. If they aren't absorbed by what's going on, they'll find something else that interests them. There are many things that can take a young child’s attention away from learning. Someone may walk pass the class and the child notices and there attention is gone, the teacher may be helping another student and there attention is gone, or simply there peer next to them can take their attention away but it is the teacher responsibility to make the lesson well enough to capture the attention of the pupils and hold it through the duration of the lesson. Something’s a teacher can do to keep the child engage are keeping the child engage the whole class period, making sure they have no “down-time” to interact with other things. Start the class with a warm-up, something to stimulate the mind or maybe even something learned from the lesson before as a review. Movement is also can keep the child involved. Anyone sitting for long periods of time can cause a lack of focus. Ask the kids to stand behind their chairs, stand if the disagree with a statement and when called upon give a reason why they disagree. Some other movement can consist of hand clapping and foot stomping to a specific pattern. After getting through the lesson you can review by asking the students “what was interesting to them?” or “was anything confusing, if so what was” “what does [blank] make you think about?” just some simply focus questions that can keep their mind thinking, they can even write down the answers to this question As a teacher it is there responsible to make sure their students learn the necessary thing laid out in the lesson plan. These specific things learned are all like building blocks and will help the child in the long run because they cannot move on to the next grade without knowing lessons from the previous grades. The instruction also reflects the school as a whole when it comes for testing. Testing scores are needed to see if the school is meeting AYP standards and determines the funding. Teachers have more responsible than what many may think.

References
Berk, Laura E.. Child development. 5th ed. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 2000. Print. "Differentiated Instruction and Implications for UDL Implementation." National Center On Accessible Instructional Materials. N.p., 2 Nov. 2009. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. . "Differentiated Instruction / Overview." Differentiated Instruction / Overview. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. . "Diversity in the Classroom - The New York Times." Diversity in the Classroom - The New York Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. . Heward, William L.. Exceptional children: an introduction to special education. Tenth ed. Upper, Saddle River, New Jearsey: Pearson, 2013. Print. "Learning-styles-online.comDiscover your learning styles - graphically!." Overview of learning styles. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2013. .

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