There are different ways of identifying developmental process of human. Because of the fact that human being has really complex component, we cannot use one way to divide process or examine their nature. Here are two big famous scientists who are Eric Erickson and Sigmund Freud will show us developmental stages of human from different point of views but also they have common point of view in different types. Freud’s Psychosexual Stages
Oral Stage (Birth to 18 months): During the oral stage, the child if focused on oral pleasures (sucking). Too much or too little gratification can result in an Oral Fixation or Oral Personality which is evidenced by a preoccupation with oral activities. Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. . Personality wise, these individuals may become overly dependent upon others, gullible, and perpetual followers. Example: I can give my cousin’s child as an example; after he born, first 12 months, his only need is to be feed by his mother and when he feeds, he looks like enjoying and taking pleasure because of doing that. Anal Stage (18 months to three years). The child’s focus of pleasure in this stage is on eliminating and retaining feces. Through society’s pressure, mainly via parents, the child has to learn to control anal stimulation. In terms of personality, after effects of an anal fixation during this stage can result in an obsession with cleanliness, perfection, and control (anal retentive). Example: after fist and half year; I realized that my cousin’s children starts to hold my hand, or when I give him a toy which he is not interested, he drop it or when he wants to be cared, he holds my hand. Phallic Stage (ages three to six). The pleasure zone switches to the genitals. Freud believed that during this stage boy develop unconscious sexual desires for their mother. Because of this, he becomes rivals with his father and sees him as competition for the mother’s affection. It was added that girls go through a similar situation, developing unconscious sexual attraction to their father. Although Freud Strongly disagreed with this, it has been termed the Electra complex by more recent psychoanalysts. According to Freud, out of fear of castration and due to the strong competition of his father, boys eventually decide to identify with him rather than fight him. By identifying with his father, the boy develops masculine characteristics and identifies himself as a male, and represses his sexual feelings toward his mother. Example: My neighbor’s daughter became extremely jealous to her father. Especially one day, we were going a part all together and her mother put on a golden earrings. His father said to her mother:”it is looking wonderful”. Her daughter started to cry and said that” you became more wonderful than me” and she forced her mother to put off them. It was really clear example for me. Latency Stage (age six to puberty): It’s during this stage that sexual urges remain repressed and children interact and play mostly with same sex peers. Example: At this stage; children starts to preschool or kind of schools and they starts to play with their peer instead of playing family, and an interaction starts to be happen. Genital Stage (puberty on). The final stage of psychosexual development begins at the start of puberty when sexual urges are once again awakened. Through the lessons learned during the previous stages, adolescents direct their sexual urges onto opposite sex peers; with the primary focus of pleasure is the genital. Example: When my cousin was 7 years old, she started to spend much more time in front of mirror; also she used to play with her other’s make-up staff and had a big interest for...
References: 1. Richard Niolan, Ph.D, Resources for students and Professors (www.psychpage.com)
2. David B. Stevenson '96, Brown University
3. Psychology website: www.psychology.about.com/library/bl_psychosocial_summary.htm
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