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Differences between Russian and English languages

By Galina19703 Nov 15, 2013 736 Words
Differences between Russian and English Languages
People who are beginning to learn English, many of the features of English language can seem incomprehensible and totally redundant. For example, students can ask a legitimate question: why we should learn 12 tenses, when Russian we learn three. Also they don’t understand, why they use articles, if everything is clear without them in Russian. The best way to get a start in learning a language this is to understand, how it compares and contrasts to own language. The Russian is part of the Slavonic branch of the Indo-European languages, while English is a Romanic language. While English share a lot in common with languages like Spanish and Italian, Russian is a lot closer to other Slav languages like Polish and Czech. Therefore Russian uses the Cyrillic alphabet, though some letters from which share similarities with the Latin alphabet used in English. Besides the phonological systems of Russian and English are very different. It’s why you rarely see Russians (even those who lived in the States for a long time) talk like native English speakers. Why is that? Because Russian only has five vowel sounds, while English has 12. In Russian, there’s also no distinction between short and long vowels; in English, there are five long and seven short vowel sounds, along with eight diphthongs. Consonants in Russian and English are roughly the same amount. Their sounds, however, are not fully compatible. The biggest grammar difference between Russian and English is the usage of the verb system in different ways. In Russian, usage is based on aspect, where actions are either completed or not completed. Aspect is shown by appending affixes to the root verb. In English, we have progressive and perfect verb tenses through the extensive use of auxiliary verbs. This difference in the grammatical systems of the Russian and English can result unconscious mistakes. Practice shows that the most common mistake, which beginners make, are using of the auxiliary verb (to be/ do/does/did etc.), these are their complete fail. Because in Russian we use only intonation for the questions, in English we have to use the additional resourses. For example, “Where you parents live”, say 99 out of 100 beginners of learning English instead of “Where do your parents live? Gender is another potential sticking point. In Russian, all nouns are either one of three genders. The last big difference is the lack of articles in Russian. So, Russian language is a synthetic, having a complex grammatical system. Values are expressed in forms of the words themselves through declensional and generic endings, consoles, etc. English language is analytical, in which grammatical meaning is transmitted with the help of auxiliary words and their order in the sentence. The following important difference Russian is a large number of impersonal, passive and return structures. These are the samples of such sentences like "вечерело"; “меня продуло”. Let’s translate these sentences. First sentence is "It's getting late", second sentence is "I got cold", where it is necessary to present the subject and the action. In addition, the Russian presents a large number of negative constructions, for example: “Я не мог сказать ему об этом” (the metaphrase is "I couldn't tell him about this") or “Не знаете ли вы, который час” (the metaphrase is "Don’t you know what time is it?" ). In English they will be translated in the affirmative sentences: "I had to tell him about that" and "Do you know what time is it?". Important difference is the fact that it is considered good etiquette to communicate clearly and concisely in English and try to avoid different "adornment" and "florid ". As a rule Russian sentences are by 30-40% longer than English. The crucial distinguishing feature of English is the strict and fixed order of the words in sentences. This is the structure of the subject-predicate (action)-object. In general it may be noted that Russian is much more straightforward language than English. Modality of statement prevails, it means, Russian are much more harsh in their judgments than the British or Americans. That’s why in English it is so important to use constructions with expressing uncertainty, different degrees of probability. Often they are used modal verbs: seems to, would think (I would think) and so on. I described important differences Russian and English languages for beginners of learning English. It is most importantly, students should know, that English is not so difficult, when we study a lot.

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