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Differences Between Grammar Translation Method and Direct Method

By langkimda Jul 17, 2013 2594 Words
The Grammar Translation Method
Howatt  in  his book,  The Empirical Evidence for the Influence of L1  in Interlanguage (1984: 98) points out The Classical Method (Grammar translation Method) was originally associated with the teaching of Latin and – to a much lesser extent – ancient Greek.             The aim of teaching Latin and Greek was (and is) obviously not so that learners would be able to speak them. The aims were/are rather to develop :  •          Logical thinking 

•          Intellectual capacities to attain a generally educational and  civilizing effect  •          An ability to read original texts in the languages concerned , at least in the better learners.            Interestingly, Howatt (1984: 131) also states:  “Grammar and Translation are actually not the distinctive features of GT, since they were already well-accepted as basic principles of language teaching. What was new was the use of invented, graded sentences rather than authentic literary texts in order to make language learning easier.”   Key features 

According to Prator and Celce-Murcia in Teaching English as a Second Foreign Language (1979:3), the key features of the Grammar Translation Method are as follows:   1)  Classes are taught in the mother tongue, with little active use of the target language.   2)  Much vocabulary is taught in the form of lists of isolated words.  3)  Long elaborate explanations of the intricacies of grammar are given.   4)  Grammar provides the rules for putting words together, and instruction often focuses on the form and inflection of words.   5)  Reading of difficult classical texts is begun early. 

6)  Little attention is paid to the content of texts, which are treated as exercises in grammatical analysis.   7)  Often the only drills are exercises in translating disconnected sentences from the target language into the mother tongue.   8)  Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.              Typical Techniques 

Diane Larsen-Freeman, in her book Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching (1986:13) provides expanded descriptions of some common/typical techniques closely associated with the Grammar Translation Method.  The listing here is in summary form only.  

1)  Translation of a Literary Passage                                          (Translating target language to native language) 
2)  Reading Comprehension Questions                                          (Finding information in a passage, making inferences and relating to personal experience)   3)  Antonyms/Synonyms                                                          (Finding antonyms and synonyms for words or sets of words).   4) Cognates                                                                            (Learning spelling/sound patterns that correspond between L1 and the target language)   5)  Deductive Application of Rule                                      (Understanding grammar rules and their exceptions, then applying them to new examples)   6)  Fill-in-the-blanks                                                                     (Filling in gaps in sentences with new words or items of a particular grammar type).   7)  Memorization                                                                    (Memorizing vocabulary lists, grammatical rules and grammatical paradigms)   8)  Use Words in Sentences                                                           (Students create sentences to illustrate they know the meaning and use of new words)   9)  Composition                                                                           (Students write about a topic using the target language)     Disadvantages  

• The Grammar Translation Method may make the language learning experience uninspiring and boring. • The Grammar Translation Method may also left the students with a sense of frustration when they travel to countries where the studied language is used (they can’t understand what people say and have to struggle mightily to express themselves at the most basic level) • This method neither approaches nor encourages the students’ communicative competence.  Reasons why it still used 

The Grammar Translation Method is still common in many countries – even popular.  Brown in his book Incremental Speech Language (1994) attempts to explain why the method is still employed by stating:  “This method requires few specialized skills on the part of teachers.”   “Grammar rules and Translation Tests are easy to construct and can be objectively scored.”  “Many standardized tests of foreign languages still do not attempt to test communicative abilities, so students have little motivation to go beyond grammar analogies, translations and other written  exercises.”    Conclusions             

The Grammar Translation Method was developed for the study of “dead” languages and to facilitate access to those languages’ classical literature.  That’s the way it should stay.  English is certainly not a dead or dying language, so any teacher that takes “an approach for dead language study” into an English language classroom should perhaps think about taking up Math or Science instead.  Rules, universals and memorized principles apply to those disciplines – pedagogy and communicative principles do not.   http://www.slideshare.net/fatimagul102/direct-method-vs-grammar-translation http://psrcentre.org/images/extraimages/ICECEBE%20113900.pdf The main features of grammar-translation method 

        This way of teaching to promote mother-tongue teaching of foreign languages in teaching translation and grammar teaching in primary, grammar learning as the main way of emphasis on rote exercises and grammar center, greater emphasis on foreign language acquisition of syntax to learn and master. Teaching, detailed analysis of grammar rules, and then use that knowledge to sentences and chapters translated into the target language and vice versa. Analysis of linguistic knowledge of their system to grammar as the center, learning clarity. Grammar teaching is the interpretation of style, first taught grammar, and through translation exercises, drills, step by step in accordance with the steps in curriculum, systematic manner, translation is the main teaching methods, especially the sentence translation. The usual practice is to each other's sentences with the target language translation from the mother tongue, 'the sentence is the basic unit of teaching and language practice, due to memory and learning, learners grammatical rules, sentence translation has been recognized as is practicable, in addition to providing practice opportunities, the grammar-translation of the second aims to promote a more focused and clear way to illustrate the use of grammar, teaching grammar rules are generally aimed at language and the corresponding source language vocabulary and sentence translation exercises composition, grammar teaching, understanding and translation exercises promote each other.              The main features of the direct method          Direct focus on oral expression and natural communication, language learning begins with the daily expression, rather than the ancient language and literature. Classroom behavior with the target language in an oral form start, emphasizing imitation, cultivate language habits. Most of the time for questions and answers, exercises, including replacement, dictation and narrative form, the class will be involved in listening comprehension, speaking outside the hearing is not alienation techniques. But its foundation, the knowledge will be transformed into oral hearing of knowledge, one is also conducive to their learning other skills training. In the direct method, through a known foreign language vocabulary, or other auxiliary means, directly to learn new words and expressions, specific vocabulary with objects or pictures demonstration, abstract words were linked with the meaning of the teaching, non-use of mother tongue as the reference, teachers to teach foreign languages make full use of gestures, movements, facial expressions, objects, pictures and other visual means to explain the grammar to avoid the translation and interpretation of the new language to link directly with the outside world, through the direct method, the target language in the language acquisition, intention in the second language (foreign language) within the reference as the only teaching methods without the aid of translation is a major feature of this approach, only to teach foreign languages, two languages, the translation does not involve conversion, a single language can help learners in Second Language association was established within words, so that learners can be assisted in the absence of their mother tongue in second language system under control, the same, through the language within the strategy, oral expression directly with objects, situations, and thinking directly connected. This argument is the cornerstone of the direct method, based on this, the second language learning closer to the first language (mother tongue) like intuitive learning, the teaching of grammar rules to take inductive, learner's errors are tolerated, the classroom, teachers will be required encourage students to directly and consciously use the language, and then sum up the grammar rules, due to language learners need to sum 2. Characteristics and principles of the Grammar-Translation Method Learners were taught in their mother tongue with little oral production of the target language. L2 learning was seen as an intellectual activity where a lot of vocabulary in the form of isolated word tables was learnt as well as deductive explanations of intricate grammar given and then practised through translation exercises. The grammar provides the rules to put the learnt vocabularies together related to the native language rules and meanings. The native language was seen as the reference construction in the L2 learning (Stern, 1996). Only a little attention was paid to the content of texts, which was used only as a basis for exercises in grammatical analysis. Very often the students were constrained to translate disconnected accurate sentences into and out of the target language. Hardly any attention was paid to speaking and listening. Strong emphasis was placed on accuracy and form, fluency and meaning were neglected. The learner was expected to produce the target language accurately and there was a low tolerance for mistakes or errors. The error correction was performed straightaway by the teacher with the correct answer or a different student was asked to supply the answer. The student was consciously aware of the L2 learning process. Because the teacher is in control of the class GTM is suitable for larger groups. Most of the time the teacher lectured the learners and there was just a little interaction between the learners and the teacher and almost no interaction between students. The GTM forced students to produce the target language from the early stages of their L2 learning. According to Krashen (1995), students should feel ready to produce the L2 in order to avoid anxiety and keep the affective filter low. The time until the students feel ready to produce the L2 is called the silent period. up his point, it will inevitably make mistakes, if the communication mistakes, teachers will not be interrupted, corrected, so as not to affect their interests, on the contrary, to encourage them to think in a foreign language, and actively use the second language, focusing on understanding and communication.             Essential Features or Principles of Direct Method:

(1) By this method it is possible to establish a direct association between the experience and expression, which should be one of the features of direct method.

(2) There should be no use of mother tongue. It should be reduced to a minimum or almost the hearing and speaking of English.

(3) The third quality of this method is that every sentence, which is complete, is a unit only; it is a means of expressing ideas.

(4) The direct method emphasizes the oral aspects of teaching. Spoken words should be made the basis and as far as possible the medium of instruction.

(5) In the direct method grammar is taught inductively rather than deductively.

(6) There is systematic use of vocabulary in the direct method. The direct method lays on the need of limited vocabulary and phraseology taught in definite stages. New words associated with concrete objects are introduced at regular intervals. They are systematically and judiciously selected for framing sentences.

Richards and Rodgers (1986:9-10) summarize the key features of the Direct Method thus:

(1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language. 

(2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught. 

(3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progression organized around  question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. 

(4) Grammar is taught inductively. 

(5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice. 

(6) Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary  is taught by association of ideas. 

(7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught. 

([pic] Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
Richards and Rodgers (1986:9-10) summarize the key features of the Direct Method thus:

(1) Classroom instruction is conducted exclusively in the target language. 

(2) Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.

(3) Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully traded progression organized around

question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.

(4) Grammar is taught inductively.

(5) New teaching points are taught through modeling and practice.

(6) Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary

is taught by association of ideas.

(7) Both speech and listening comprehension are taught.

(8) Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.

2. The Concept
These followings are the concepts of Direct Method:

1. Teachers who use the Direct Method intend that students learn how to communicate in the target language.

2. Students need to associate meaning and the target language directly.

3. The initiation of the interaction goes both ways, from teacher to students and from student to teacher, although the latter is often teacher-directed. Students converse with one another as well.

4. Language is primarily spoken, not written.

5. Vocabulary is emphasized over grammar.

6. The students’ native language should not be used in the classroom.

7. In the Direct Method, students are asked to the language, not to demonstrate their knowledge about the language.

8. The teacher, employing various techniques, tries to get student self-correct.

Richards and Rodgers (1986:9-10) summarize the key features of the Direct Method thus:

1. Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language.

2. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase.

3. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes.

4. Grammar is taught inductively.

5. New teaching points are introduced orally.

6. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas.

7. Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.

8. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.

9. Student should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson.

10. Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them.

The Direct Method
            1.  The direct method of teaching foreign languages,             2. sometimes called the natural method,             3. refrains from using the learners' native language             4. uses only the target language.                           5. It was established in Germany and France around 1900. 6. teaching vocabulary through pantomiming, real-life objects and other visual materials 7. teaching grammar by using an inductive approach (i.e. having learners find out rules through the presentation of adequate linguistic forms in the target language) 8. centrality of spoken language (including a native-like pronunciation) 9. focus on question-answer patterns

10. teacher-centering
11. Classroom instructions are conducted exclusively in the target language. 12. Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught during the initial phase; grammar, reading and writing are introduced in intermediate phase. 13. Oral communication skills are built up in a carefully graded progression organized around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students in small, intensive classes. 14. Grammar is taught inductively.

15. New teaching points are introduced orally.
16. Concrete vocabulary is taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures; abstract vocabulary is taught by association of ideas. 17. Both speech and listening comprehensions are taught.
18. Correct pronunciation and grammar are emphasized.
19. Student should be speaking at least 80% of the time during the lesson. 20. Students are taught from inception to ask questions as well as answer them. The key Aspects of this method are:
21.  Introduction of new word, number, alphabet character, sentence or concept (referred to as an Element)  22. Syntax, the correct location of new Element in sentence  23.  Progress, from new Element to new Element (within same lesson)  24. Progress, from Lesson to Lesson

25. Advaced Concept

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