Topics: Diabetes mellitus, Insulin, Blood sugar Pages: 10 (1401 words) Published: April 22, 2014
Communications assignment 1

By Billie Ellis

This assignment is based on the illness Diabetes. The following is to provide you with accurate and interesting facts on diabetes to help you have more of an understanding of such an illness and hopefully help you to prevent it. My information was researched on several websites, as well as an interview with my granddad. Diabetes

What is diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition caused by a lack, or insufficiency of insulin. Insulin is a hormone – a substance of vital importance that is made by your pancreas. Insulin acts like a key to open the doors into your cells, letting sugar (glucose) in.

In diabetes, the pancreas makes too little insulin to enable all the sugar in your blood to get into your muscle and other cells to produce energy. If sugar can’t get into the cells to be used, it builds up in the bloodstream. Therefore, diabetes is characterized by high blood sugar levels. Excess sugar is also excreted in the urine, hence the practice, in days gone by, of tasting it to diagnose the condition.

Before you got diabetes

Before you got diabetes, your body automatically kept your blood sugar exactly at the right level. Here is how that worked. After a meal containing carbohydrates, sugar is absorbed into the blood stream very quickly. The amount of sugar in your blood must not get too high or too low. Two hormones – insulin and glucagon – were produced in the pancreas – to ensure that the blood sugar was always well controlled no matter how much you had to eat and how much you exercised.

How does diabetes occur?

Normally, the amount of sugar in the blood is controlled by a hormone called insulin, which is produced by the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland behind the stomach. When food is digested and enters your bloodstream, insulin moves any glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it is broken down to produce energy. However, in people with diabetes, the body is unable to break down glucose into energy. This is because there is either not enough insulin to move the glucose, or because the insulin that is there does not work properly.

Types of diabetes

There are 2 main categories of diabetes:

Type 1: diabetes tends to occur in childhood or early adult life, and always requires treatment with insulin injections. It is caused by the body’s own immune system destroying the insulin-making cells (beta-cells) of the pancreas.

Type 2: diabetes usually develops slowly in adulthood. It is progressive and can sometimes be treated with diet and exercise, but more often Type 2 diabetes may require ant diabetic medicine and/or insulin injections.

What is type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body produces no insulin. It is often referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes or as the early-onset diabetes because it usually develops before the age of 40, often during the teenage years.

Type 1 diabetes is far less common than type 2 diabetes. People with type 1 make up 10% of all people with diabetes; you will need to take insulin injections for life. You must also make sure that your blood glucose levels stay balanced by eating a healthy diet and carrying out regular blood tests.


Symptoms are:
itchiness around the vagina or penis or getting thrush regularly blurred vision
skin infections

What causes type 1 diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes occurs because your body cannot produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is needed to control the amount of glucose, a type of sugar, in your blood.

When you eat, your digestive system breaks down food and passes its nutrients into your bloodstream. Normally, insulin is produced by your pancreas to take any glucose out of your blood and move it into your cells, where it is broken down to produce energy.

However, if you have type 1 diabetes, there is no insulin...
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