Understanding the care and management of Diabetes
Assessment 1.1 Understand the function of glucose in the blood
1) 1.1 Explain what ‘blood glucose’ is:
Blood glucose is glucose in the blood stream. Glucose comes from eating and digesting carbohydrates.
2) 1.2 Describe the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates:
Carbohydrates that break down rapidly during digestion are known as simple carbohydrates because they rapidly release glucose into the blood stream. Carbohydrates that break down slowly are known as complex carbohydrates because they slowly release glucose into the blood stream.
3) 1.3 Define the term ‘glycaemia’:
Glycaemia is the presence of glucose (sugar) in the blood
4) 1.4 Define the term ‘hypoglycaemia’:
Hypoglycaemia is a condition that arises when a person has a low level of blood glucose (less than 3.5mnol/L
5) 1.3 Define the term ‘hyperglycaemia’:
Hyperglycaemia is a condition that arises when a person has an abnormally high level of blood glucose.
6) 1.4 Describe what ‘pre-diabetes’ is:
Pre-diabetes is a precursor to type 2 diabetes. There are no signs and symptoms-an individual simply has elevated glucose levels., but these blood glucose levels are not quite high enough to be considered full diabetes. Pre-diabetes is initially managed with a healthy diet and exercise.
7) 1.4 What are the two pre-diabetic states:
...Type 1 diabetes
You've just been told you have type 1 diabetes. What now? Managing type 1 diabetes is composed of a handful of elements: blood glucose control and insulin management, exercise, nutrition and support.
A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes means your pancreas is no longer capable of producing insulin. Through multiple daily injections with insulin pens or syringes or an insulin pump, it will be up to you to monitor your blood glucose levels and appropriately administer your insulin.
Exercise is a key component of proper diabetes care. Along with all of the other benefits you will receive from being active, your diabetes will also respond in kind with more stable blood glucose levels. Regardless of the type of diabetes you have, regular physical activity is important for your overall health and wellness. With type 1, it’s important to balance your insulin doses with the food you eat and the activity that you do – even if you are just doing house or yard work. Planning ahead and knowing your body’s typical blood glucose response to exercise can help you keep your blood glucose from going too low or too high. Some activities may cause your blood glucose to drop quickly while others do not. If your blood glucose levels are trending down before a workout, have a pre-exercise snack. Always carry a carbohydrate food or drink (like juice or glucose tabs) that will...
...DIABETESDiabetes mellitus is one of common metabolic diseases in the U.S.A. The patients who diagnosed with diabetes mellitus have higher glucose level in the blood than normal. The number of people having diabetes has been more than doubled and increased in all age groups between 1981 and 2002. Diabetes affects physically, socially and economically to people has it. It has been the top reasons of nontraumatic amputation and blindness to working age adults and end stage renal disease. Also, it the third top cause of death. The major risk factors for diabetes mellitus are family history, obesity, race, ethnity, older age, previously diagnosed with impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, HDL cholesterol level lower than 35mg/Dl , triglyceride level greater than 250mg/Dl, history of gestational diabetes and delivery of babies over 9lb. (Smeltzer, 1197)
There are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, gestational diabetes and diabetes mellitus associated with other conditions or syndromes. There are different causes, clinical courses and treatments. Type 1 diabetes affects about 5 to 10 percent of people and it is diagnosed before 30 years old. It is characterized by decreased insulin production, unchecked glucose production by the liver and fasting hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes affects about...
...Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) resulting from defects in insulin production and secretion, decreased cellular response to insulin, or both. This leads to hyperglycemia, which may lead to acute metabolic complications, such as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). Longterm hyperglycemia may contribute to chronic microvascular complications (kidney and eye disease) and neuropahtic complications. Diabetes is also associated with an increased occurrence of macrovascular disease, icluding coronay artery disease, (myocardial infarction), cerebrovascular disease (stroke) and peripheral vascular disease.
Types of Diabetes
Type 1 (Formerly Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
About 5%-10% of diabetic patients have type 1 diabetes. Beta cells of the pancreas that normally produce insulin are destroyed by an autoimmune process. Insulin injections are needed to control the blood glucose levels.
Type 1 diabetes has a sudden onset, usually before the age of 30 years.
Type 2 (Formerly Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus)
About 90% to 95% of diabetics have type 2 diabetes. It results from a decrease sensitivity to insulin (insulin resistance) or from a decreased amount of insulin production.
Type 2 diabetes is first...
October 13, 2012
1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is the result of the pancreas being unable to produce adequate amounts of insulin and the resistance of cells to insulin. This results in glucose remaining in the blood and not being taken up by the cells leading to hyperglycemia. Because of insulin’s role in the stimulation of the synthesis of protein and the storage of fatty acids in adipose tissue, inadequate amounts of insulin also reduces nutrients that are essential for fuel and storage being accessed by tissues. Beta cells of the pancreas do not function correctly leading to inadequate amounts of insulin being produced. (P. 549) [ (Wolters Kluwer Health, 2012) ] [ (Khardori, 2012) ]
2. The major risk factors for the development of DM II include: 1) being overweight by a margin of at least 120% of ideal body weight; 2) being older than 45 (however, this is changing); 3) being of Hispanic, African American, Native American, Pacific Islander or Asian American heritage; 4) Having a first-degree relative who has a history of DM II; 5) Having hypertension or having low HDL cholesterol or high triglycerides; 6) Having a previous history of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance; 7) having previous had gestational diabetes or having given birth to a baby weighing over 9 pounds; 8) having polycystic ovarian syndrome. [ (Khardori, 2012) ]
3. The difference between a...
...TEACHING PLAN 1
1.The term “diabetes mellitus” refers to group of diseases that affect how body uses blood glucose, commonly called blood sugar. Glucose is vital to the health because it’s an important source of energy for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. It’s brain’s main source of fuel.
When a person eats, the sugar — or glucose — from digested food enters the bloodstream. Glucose then moves from the blood into the body’s cells with the help of insulin. Insulin helps “open the door” to cells in the body to allow glucose to enter. As type 2 diabetes develops, the body’s cells resist insulin, and beta cells — cells in the pancreas that release insulin — need to release much more insulin than they normally would.
In people with type 2 diabetes, the beta cells gradually stop releasing enough insulin to help bring sugar into cells, causing higher levels of blood sugar. These beta cells gradually stop working the way they should. As the number of beta cells goes down, the pancreas releases less and less insulin. As a result, glucose does not make its way into the cells and ends up staying in the blood, causing high blood sugar, or hyperglycemia.
2. It is important to maintain normal blood sugar level. Keeping blood sugar under control can help in the prevention of crashes, which contribute to feelings of dizziness, nausea and lightheadedness. For best results, be sure to choose foods...
Comparison of Insulin, Metformin, and Diet Effect on Gestational Diabetes
RESEARCH ARTICLE: Rowan J., Gao W., Battin M., & Moore M. (2008). Metformin Vs. Insulin for the Treatment of Gestational Diabetes. The New England Journal of Medicine. 358(19):2003-2015.
GENERAL ARTICLE: Abedin S. (2009). Study: Diet Can Help Avoid Diabetes Drugs. Time magazine.
Comparison of Insulin, Metformin, and Diet Effect on Gestational Diabetes
Diabetes is an epidemic disorder. Number of diabetes patients has increased very rapidly. Personally, I chose this topic because my major is Pharmacy. The other reason behind the selection of this topic is that there are millions of people in the world who are suffering from diabetes. The total number of diabetes patients in 2006 were 246 million and it is expected to reach up to 380 million in 2025 (Business Service Industry, 2007). There is not a single medicine or vaccine that can completely cure the diabetes. However, the insulin injections and other oral medicines are available in the market, but they are very expensive and they can maintain the blood glucose level temporarily. I notice that bitter melon has the same activity as insulin. I am going to do my research on diabetes in the future. I chose this topic for the research paper because this information might be very...
In the United States, about 16 million people suffer from diabetes mellitus, although only half of these individuals are diagnosed. Every year, about 650,000 people learn they have the disease. Diabetes mellitus is the seventh leading cause of all deaths and the sixth leading cause of all deaths caused by disease. Diabetes is the most common in adults over 45 years of age; in people who are overweight or physically inactive; in individuals who have an immediate family member with diabetes; and in minority populations including African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans. The highest rate of diabetes in the world occurs in Native Americans. More women than men have been diagnosed with the disease. Diabetes can develop gradually, often without symptoms, over many years. It may reveal itself too late to prevent damage. In fact, you may first learn you have diabetes when you develop one of its common complications cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, or vision problems. Diabetes is a condition that occurs because of a lack of insulin or because of the presence of factors opposing the actions of insulin. The result of insufficient action of insulin is an increase in blood glucose concentration (hyperglycemia). Hyperglycemia is the unused glucose that builds up in your blood. Many other...