J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 5(1): 99 - 111, 2012
Prospect of Solid Waste Situation and An Approach of Environmental Management Measure (EMM) Model for Sustainable Solid Waste Management: Case Study of Dhaka City 1
K. M. Bahauddin and 2M. H. Uddin
Department of Environment, Dhaka 2 MATS, Faridpur
Abstract Environmental Management Measure (EMM) model will be a well-designed approach for sustainable and effective solid waste management in Dhaka city. Environmental Management Measure (EMM) model has three instruments such as economic, regulatory and suasive which proposed in this paper. This paper discusses the situation of solid waste in Dhaka city as well as it offers environmental policy recommendations to concerned authorities including effective instruments to minimize the polluting behavior of individuals and industries and to recover the cost of pollution in the city. To improve solid waste management in Dhaka city, a combination of economic, regulatory and suasive instrument are recommended. The findings of the study will be helpful for policy maker, planner, implementer and other stakeholders towards adopting more effective strategy for management of solid waste in Dhaka city. Key words: Dhaka city, EMM, Solid waste, Solid waste management, Sustainability,
Bangladesh is a densely populated country; country's population will be about 17 crore by 2020. In countries like Bangladesh solid wastes make an incredible environmental hazard and social problem in city lives. A massive volume of solid waste is generated every day in the city areas and unfortunately solid waste management is being deteriorated day by day due to the limited resources in handling the increasing rate of generated waste. Rapid urbanization has made solid waste management a serious problem today. The urban area of Bangladesh generates approximately 16,015 tons of waste per day, which adds up to over 5.84 million tons annually. It is projected that this amount will grow up to 47,000tons/ tons/day and close to 17.16 million tons per year by 2025, due to growth both in population and the increase in per capita waste generation. Based on the present total urban population, per capita waste generation rate is found at 0.41 kg/capita/day in urban area of Bangladesh. Existing infrastructure for waste management showed that waste collection efficiency in different urban areas varies from 37% to 77% with an average of 55%. The overall waste collection situation is not very satisfactory. Huge amount of uncollected waste, a high proportion of which is organic, makes nuisance and pollutes the local environment rapidly. Solid waste disposal poses a greater problem because it leads to land pollution if openly dumped, water pollution if dumped in low lands and air pollution if burnt. Dhaka, the capital city of Bangladesh is facing 99
serious environmental degradation and public-health risk due to uncollected disposal of waste on streets and other public areas, clogged drainage system by indiscriminately dumped wastes and by contamination of water resources near uncontrolled dumping sites. In this perspective, Environmental Management Measure (EMM) model will be a useful approach for sustainable and effective solid waste management in Dhaka city and other urban areas of Bangladesh. Many countries implemented this measure and acquired successful outcome by improving environment and its effective management.
In this paper, Environmental Management Measures (EMM) model is proposed for sustainable and effective solid waste management in Dhaka city. 1. Framework of Environmental Management Measures (EMM) Environmental management measures (EMM) are primarily based on the application of theories associated with (i) externalities, (ii) open-access resources, and (iii) public goods. Failure to internalize externalities, ensure property rights, and appropriately manage public goods gives rise to...
References: Ahsan, A., Alamgir, M., Islam, R. and Chowdhury, K. H., 2005. Initiatives of Non-Governmental Organizations in Solid Waste Management at Khulna City, Intl. Conf. on Civil Engineering, March 9 – 11, IEB, Dhaka, Bangladesh, 185196pp. Ali, M. A. 2001. Unmanageable Solid Waste. People’s Report on Bangladesh Environment 2001: Main Report, Unnayan Shamannay, UPL, Dhaka, Bangladesh., 1: 209- 215. Amin, A. T. M. N.; Jarusombut, S.; Thuy, T.T.B. and Thanaprayochask, W. 2006. Environmental Management Measures for Influencing Human Behaviour Towards Sustainable Development, Regional Development Dialogue, 27(1): 85-100. Asaduzzaman, M. and Hye, H. A. 1998, When Both Market and State Fail: The Crisis of Solid Waste Management in Urban Bangladesh, in R. Sobhan (ed.), Crisis in Governance: A Review of Bangladesh Development 1997, Dhaka: Centre for Policy Dialogue and University Press, 383400pp. Asian Development Bank and United Nations Environment Programme. 2004. Greater Mekong Subregion Atlas of the Environment. Manila and Pathumthani, Thailand. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, (BBS) 2001. Population Census 2001 Preliminary Report, Statistics Division, Ministry of Planning, Government of Bangladesh. Baud, I., Grafakos, S., Hordijk, M., and Post, 2001. Quality of Life and Alliances in Solid Waste 110
Management: Contributions to Urban Sustainable Development, in Cities, 18(1): 3-12. BCAS. 1998. Refuse Quantity Assessment of Dhaka City Corporation for Waste to Electrical Energy Project, Final Project Report funded by the World Bank and Power Cell, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. Bennagen, M.E. and V. Altez. 2004. Impacts of Unit Pricing of Solid Waste Collection and Disposal in Olongapo City, Philippines. Singapore: EEPSEA. Bhuiyan, S. H. 2005. Benefits of Social Capital: Urban Solid Waste Management in Bangladesh, Münster: LIT. Bhuiyan, S. H. 2000. "Strengthening Local Government through Civic Engagement: Lessons from the Community-Based Solid Waste Management Initiatives in Urban Bangladesh", in Journal of Local Government, 29(1): 68-81. Chen, X. and L. Bacareza. 1995. Application of Economic and Regulatory Instruments for Environmental Management in Asian Industrializing Countries. Thailand: Asian Institute of Technology. DCC (Dhaka City Corporation) 1999. Solid Waste Management by Dhaka City Corporation, Dhaka. Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) 2004. “The Study on the Solid Waste Management in Dhaka City”, prepared by Pacific Consultants International and Yachiyo Engineering Co., Ltd. Enayetullah, I. and Sinha, A. H. M. M 2002. Decentralized Composting: Experience of Waste Concern in Dhaka, Bangladesh, Training Workshop on Incorporation of the Informal Sector Waste Pickers and Community-Based Decentralized Composting in Formal Solid Waste Management System by United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, Dhaka. Enayetullah, I., Sinha, A. H. M. M. and Khan, S. S. A. 2000. ‘Urban Solid Waste Management Scenario of Bangladesh: Problems and Prospects’, Waste Concern Technical Documentation, pp.3-18, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Eskeland, G. S. and E. Jimenez. 1992. Policy Instruments for Pollution Control in Developing Countries. The World Bank Research Observer 7(2): 145–169. Hasan, S. 1998. Problems of Municipal Waste Management in Bangladesh: An Inquiry into its Nature, in Habitat International, 22(2): 191-202. Hossain MD, Badruzzaman ABM and Ali MA 2000. Characterization of Municipal Solid Waste of Dhaka City, Research Report, Environmental
J. Environ. Sci. & Natural Resources, 5(1): 99 - 111, 2012
Engineering Division, Department of Civil Engineering, BUET, Dhaka. IFRD 1998. Refuse Quality Assessment of Dhaka City Corporation for Waste to Electrical Energy Project, Project Report funded by The World Bank and Power Cell, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh. JICA. 2000. Solid Waste Management Project of Dhaka City Corporation. Final Report of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) Expert, Bangladesh. Kathuria, V. 2004. Use of Economic Instruments in Environmental Management. Paper presented at SANDEE Policy Review and Proposal Writing Workshop. Kathmandu: Madras School of Economics, Chennai, India. Ray, A. 2008. Waste Management in Developing Asia: Can Trade and Cooperation Help? in Journal of Environment & Development, 17(1): 3-25. Saad, M. A. K. 2004. Sustainable solid waste management for Dhaka city. An unpublished
M.Sc. Thesis. Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Sweden. Sarmin T 2000. Study of present status of solid waste management practices of Dhaka city. B. Sc. Engg. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, BUET, Dhaka. Salam A 2000. Analysis and design of solid waste management system for a residential zone of Dhaka city. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, BUET, Dhaka. Scheinberg, A. 2001. Financial and economic issues in integrated sustainable waste management. Tools for decision-makers. Experiences from the Urban Waste Expertise Programme. The Netherlands: WASTE. United Nations Environment Program. 2004. The Use of Economic Instruments in Environmental Policy: Opportunities and Challenges. Bangkok: United Nations Environmental Program. Yousuf TB 1996. Sustainability of solid waste management system of Dhaka City Corporation. M. Sc. Thesis, Department of Civil Engineering, BUET, Dhaka.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document