Development: The changes in physical, cognitive, and social abilities that occur throughout the lifespan Important Issues: Nature vs. Nurture , Stability vs. Change, Continuity vs. Stage Research Methods:
1.Longitudinal Method: Study one group of people over long period of time 2.Cross-Sectional Method: Study different age groups at the same time Prenatal Development
1.Germinal Stage: Zygote -Conception to 2 weeks
2.Embryonic Stage -2 weeks to 2 months
3.Fetal Stage -2 months to birth
Prenatal Nutrition: Teratogens
*Cephalocaudal - Development from head to foot
*Proximodistal -Development from center outward
*Maturation -Unfolding of genetic blueprint
*Developmental Norms –Median age for behaviors to appear
-At birth an infant can see in color
-At birth child prefers human faces
-By age 6 months acuity matches an adults
-Auditory localization, distinguish voices and speech
-Established within first few months of life
-Remains stable through life
-Primarily depends on genes
*Uninhibited -Easily approach unfamiliar people, objects, situations *Inhibited -Tend to be fearful of unfamiliar people, objects, situations *Easy Children -Happy, easy-going
*Slow to Warm-up Children -Less happy, slowly adapt to change *Difficult Children -Downcast, resist change
Theory of Personality Development
Eight Stage Theory
Focuses on psychosocial development
Personality development through social interactions
*Attachment is a deep and enduring emotional bond that connects one person to another across time and space. *The behavioral theory of attachment stated that the child becomes attached to the mother because she fed the infant. *Bowlby defined attachment as a “lasting psychological connectedness between human beings” *According to Bowlby infants have a universal need to seek close proximity with their caregiver when under stress or threatened *The results of the study indicated that attachments were most likely to form with those who responded accurately to the baby's signals, not the person they spent most time with. Schaffer and Emerson called this sensitive responsiveness. **This supports the evolutionary theory of attachment, in that it is the sensitive response and security of the caregiver that is important (as apposed to the provision of food).
*Attachment Type :Secure , Anxious Resistant , Anxious Avoidant Maternal Care :
Secure -Responsive, Loving
Resistant -Incompetent, Negligent
Avoidant -Incompetent, Overbearing
-Attachment type stays the same as child ages
-Attachment a child has to one parent will be similar to that for another parent -Attachments develop with fathers and mothers at different times -Children living in poverty are less likely to develop secure attachments -A child with a secure attachment is more likely to be competent, happy -Attachment depends on culture
-Respect for child’s individuality
-Clear cut standards consistently upheld
-Little affection expressed
-Unquestioning obedience is demanded
-Little is demanded from the child
-Child makes own decisions
Jean Piaget Cognitive Stages
*schema the basic building block of intelligent behavior – a way of organizing knowledge. *Assimilation Which is using an existing schema to deal with a new object or situation.
Children are active not passive learners.
Try to develop more complex ways of understanding the world Children engage in meaning making.
Making sense out of the world by asking "why?"
Thought processes depend on assimilation.
Making new information fit our existing thought structure
Thought processes depend on accommodation.
Changing our thought structure to fit new information
Piaget’s Stage Theory
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