Development of a Flapping Wing Mechanism

Powerful Essays
Oliver Breitenstein

Development of a Flapping Wing Mechanism

Semester Project
Autonomous Systems Lab (ASL) Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH) Zurich

Supervision Dr. Samir Bouabdallah, Stefan Leutenegger and Prof. Dr. Roland Siegwart

Spring Semester 2009

Contents
Abstract Acknowledgements 1 Introduction 2 Review 2.1 Aerodynamics of flapping wings . 2.1.1 Wagner Effect . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Leading edge vortex . . . 2.1.3 Clap and fling mechanism 2.1.4 Rotational lift . . . . . . . 2.1.5 Wing-wake interactions . 2.1.6 Lift force . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Flapping wings in nature . . . . 2.2.1 Insects . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Hummingbirds . . . . . . 2.2.3 Bats . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Birds . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Concepts 3.1 General Considerations . . . . . 3.1.1 Objective characteristics 3.1.2 Flight control . . . . . . 3.1.3 Actuator . . . . . . . . 3.2 Concepts for wing flapping . . 3.2.1 Concept A . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Concept B . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Concept C . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Concept D . . . . . . . 3.3 Concepts for wing pitching . . 3.3.1 Active pitching . . . . . 3.3.2 Passive pitching . . . . 4 Evaluation 4.1 Evaluation of concepts . . . . 4.1.1 Criteria . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Flapping concepts . . 4.1.3 Pitching concepts . . . 4.2 Expected weight . . . . . . . 4.3 Expected power consumption iii iv 1 3 3 3 3 4 5 6 6 7 7 10 13 16 17 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 25 29 29 29 32 35 35 35 36 36 37 38

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